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Shav;, George Coombs 

The Chinook jargon and 
how to use it 



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Myron Eells, D. D., (manuscript). 

George Gibbs, (Smithsonian Institution), printed. 

Horatio Hale, M. A., F. R. S. C, (printed). 

Charles M. Buchanan, (Haskell Institute), manuscript. 

Dr. Franz Boas, (printed). 

Alexander Francis Chamberlain, (printed). 

Rev. Paul Gard, (manuscript notes), French words. 

W. S. Phillips, (El Comancho), criticism. 

Mr. and Mrs. H. S. Alfred (Indians), Suquamish, Wash. 

Indians, (numerous), Puget Sd., Neah Bay and West Coast. 










Rainier Printing Company, Inc. 

116 Third Avenue So. 

Copyright 1909 by 
George C. Shaw 


Erastus Brainerd 


In offering the present work to the 
public, it is the author's hope to supply, 
with respect to other dictionaries of the 
Chinook Jargon, a desideratum hitherto 
unsupplied in the fifty or more editions 
of small vocabularies issued during a 
period of seventy years. 

It has been the aim to give the origin 
and derivation of every word treated, 
whenever such is known, and to record 
under each every authoritative reference 
thereto. Also a reference to the author- 
ity is noted. 

With regard to the spelling, it is be- 
lieved that a sufficient number of forms 
is recorded to enable the student to 
identify practically every word, as well 
as to trace the origin of many words of 
undetermined derivation. 

A valuable feature is the index to use- 
ful words in the main vocabulary. An- 
other feature worth mention is the sup- 
plemental vocabulary of about two hun- 
dred uncommon words, which are of 
such limited use as to preclude a neces- 
sity for their appearance in the malti 
vocabulary. One of the best features, 
perhaps, is the Guide to Pronunciation, 
with the Key to the Symbols. This 
pronouncing vocabulary records two 
hundred and seventy-five words, employ- 
ing the diacritically marked letters, and 
is the work of the late Myron Eells, 
than whom no higher authority ever 

"The origin of this Jargon, a conven- 
tional language similar to the Lingua 
Franca of the Mediterranean, the Negro- 
English-Dutch of Surinam, the Pigeon 
English of China, and several other 
mixed tongues, dates back to the fur 
droguers of the last century. Those 
mariners whose enterprise in the fifteen 
years preceding 1800, explored the in- 
tricacies of the northwest coast of 
America, picked up at their general ren- 
dezvous. Nootka Sound, various native 
words useful in barter, and thence trans- 
planted them, with additions from t)ie 
English, to the shores of Oregon. Even 
before their day, the coasting trade and 
warlike expeditions of the northern 
tribes, themselves a seafaring race, had 
opened up a partial understanding of 
of each other's speech; for when, in 
1792, Vancouver's officers visited Gray's 
Harbor, they found that the natives, 
though speaking a different language, 
understood many words of the Nootka. 

On the arrival of Lewis and Clarke 
at the mouth of the Columbia, in 1806. 
the new language, from the sentences 

given by them, had evidently attained 
some form. It was with the arrival of 
Astor's party, however, that the Jargon 
received its principal impulse. Many 
more words of English were then 
brought in, and for the first time the 
Frencli, or rather the Canadian and 
Missouri patois of the French, were in- 
troduced. The principal seat of the 
company being at Astoria, not only a 
large addition of Chinook words was 
made, but a considerable number was 
taken from the Chihalis, who immediate- 
ly bordered the tribe on the north, — 
each owning a portion of Shoalwater 
Bay. The words adopted from the sev- 
eral languages were, naturally enough, 
those most easily uttered by all, except, 
of course, that objects new to the na- 
tives found names in French or Eng- 
lish, and such modifications were made 
in pronunciation as suited tongues ac- 
customed to different sounds. Thus the 
gutturals of the Indians were softened 
or dropped; and the f and r of the Eng- 
lish and French, to them unpronounce- 
able, were modified into p and 1. Gram- 
matical forms were reduced to their 
simplest expression, and variations in 
mood and tense conveyed only by ad- 
verbs or by the context. The language 
continued to receive additions, and as- 
sumed a more distinct and settled mean- 
ing, under the Northwest and Hudson's 
Bay companies, who succeeded Astor's 
party, as well as through the American 
settlers in Oregon. Its advantage was 
soon perceived by the Indians, and the 
Jargon became to some extent a means 
of communication between natives of 
different speech, as well as between 
them and the whites. It was even used 
as such between Americans and Cana- 
dians. It was at first most in vogue 
upon the lower Columbia and the Wil- 
lamette, whence it spread to Puget 
Sound, and with the extension of trade 
found its way far up the coast, as well 
as the Columbia and Fraser rivers; and 
there are now few tribes between the 
42nd and 57th parallels of latitude in 
which there are not to be found inter- 
preters through its medium. Its preva- 
lence and easy acquisition, while of vast 
convenience to traders and settlers, has 
tended greatly to hinder the acquire- 
ment of the original Indian languages; 
so much so, that except by a few mis- 
sionaries and pioneers, hardly one of 
them is spoken or understood by white 
men in all Oregon and Washington Ter- 
ritory. Notwithstanding its apparent 
poverty in number of words, and the 


absence of grammatical forms, it pos- 
sesses much more flexibility and power 
of expression than might be imagined, 
and really serves almost every purpose 
of ordinary Intercourse. 

The number of words constituting the 
Jargon proper has been variously stated. 
Many formerly employed have become 
in great measure obsolete, while others 
have been locally introduced. Thus, at 
the Dalles of the Columbia, various 
terms are common which would not 
be intelligible at Astoria or on Puget 
Sound. In making the following selec- 
tion, I have included all those which, 
on reference to a number of vocabu- 
laries, I have found current at any of 
these places, rejecting, on the other 
hand, such as individuals, partially ac- 
quainted with the native languages, have 
employed for their own convenience."-r- 
George Gibbs, in "A Dictionary of the 
Chinook Jargon or Trade Language of 
Oregon," prepared from materials col- 
lected by himself during a residence of 
twelve years on the Northwest Coast of 
North America. 


"The 'Trade iMSaigvuLge,' which came 
afterwards to be known as the 'Chinook 
Jarg-on,' grew into existence. As finally 
developed, it has become really an 'inter- 
national speech' widely diffused amon^ 
the fifty tribes of Oregon, Washington, 
British Columbia and Alaska, and of 
inestimable service, not only to com- 
merce, but to science, to missionary ef- 
forts, and to the convenience of travel- 
ers. • ♦ • The British and Ameri- 
can trading ships first appeared on the 
northwest coast during the closing years 
of the last (eighteenth) century. The 
great number of languages spoken by 
the native tribes proved to be a. serious 
hindrance to their business. • * ♦ 
Unfortunately, all these languages — 
the Nootka, Nigqnally, Cliinook, Chi- 
hailish, and others — were alike harsh in 
pronunciation, complex in structure, and 
each spoken over a very limited space. 
But, as the harbor of Nootka was at 
that time the headquarters or chief em- 
porium of the trade, it was necessarily 
the case that some words of the dialect 
there spoken became known to the 
traders, and the Indians, on the other 
hand, were made familiar with a few 
English words. These, with the assist- 
ance of signs, were sufficient for the 
slight intercourse that was then main- 
tained. Afterwards the traders began 
to frequent the Columbia River, and 
naturally attempted to communicate 
with the natives there by means of the 
words with which they had found In- 
telligible at Nootka. The Chlnooks, who 
are quick In catching sounds, soon ac- 

quired these words, both Nootka and 
English, and we find that they were in 
use among them as early as the visit 
of Lewis and Clark in 1804. But when, 
at a later period, the white traders of 
Astor's expeditions, and from other 
quarters, made permanent establish- 
ments in Oregon, it was soon found 
that the scanty list of nouns, verbs, and 
adjectives then in use was not sufficient 
for the more constant and general inter- 
course which began to take place. A 
real language, complete in all its parts, 
however limited in extent, was required; 
and it was found by drawing upon the 
Chinook for such words as were requi- 
site, in order to add to the skeleton 
which they had already possessed the 
sinews and tendons, the connecting liga- 
ments, as it were, of a speech. These 
consisted of the numerals (the ten 
digits and the word for hundred), twelve 
pronouns (I, thou, he, we, ye, they, this, 
other, all, both, who, what), and about 
twenty adverbs and prepositions (such 
as now, then, formerly, soon, across, 
ashore, offshore, inland, above, below, to, 
with, etc). Having appropriated these 
and a few other words of the same 
tongue, the Trade Language — or, as it 
now began to be styled, 'the Jargon' — 
assumed a regular shape, and became 
of great service as a means of general 
intercourse. But the new idiom received 
additions from other sources. The Ca- 
nadian voyageurs, as they are called, 
who enlisted in the service of the Amer- 
ican and British fur companies, were 
brought more closely in contact with 
the Indians than any others of the for- 
eigners. They did not merely trade, 
they traveled, hunted, ate, and, in short, 
lived with them on terms of familiarity. 
The consequence was that several words 
of the French language were added to 
the slender stock of the Jargon. Eight 
on ten words were made by what gram- 
marians term onomatopoeia, — that is, 
were formed by rude attempts to imi- 
tate sound, and are therefore the sole 
and original property of the Jargon. 
All the words thus combined in this 
singularly constructed language, at that 
stage of its existence, were found to 
number, according to my computation, 
about two hundred and fifty. Of these, 
eighteen were of Nootka origin, forty- 
one were English, thirty-four French, 
.one hundred and eleven Chinook, ten 
formed by onomatopoeia, and some 
thirty-eight were of doubtful derivation, 
though probably for the most part 
either Chinook or Nootkan. But as 
might be expected, the language con- 
tinued to develop. Its grammar, such 
as it was, remained the same, but Its 
Lexicon drew contributions from all the 
various sources which have been named, 



and from some others. In 1863, seven- 
teen years after my list was published, 
the Smithsonian Institution put forth 
a 'Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon,' 
prepared by the late George Gibbs, a 
thoroughly competent Investigator. His 
collection comprised nearly five hun- 
dred words. Those of Chinook origin 
had almost doubled, being computed at 
two hundred and twenty-one. The 
French had more than doubled, and com- 
prised now ninety-four words. The 
English terms were sixty-seven. The 
great Salish or 'Flathead' stock, with 
whose tribes, next to the Chinook, 
the Oregon traders had the largest re- 
lations, furnished thirty-nine words. 
The Nootka, in its various dialects, now 
yielded twenty-four. The others, about 
forty, were due to the imitation of nat- 
ural sounds, or were of casual or un- 
determined derivation. There can be no 
doubt that it will remain a living and 
useful language so long as the native 
tribes continue to speak their own dia- 
lects. Rude and formless as it is, the 
spontaneous product of the commercial 
needs of mingled races, it has been the 
source of great and varied benefits. It 
may well serve, if not as a model, at 
least as a finger-post to direct us to 
some higher invention for subserving 
the larger uses of an advanced civiliza- 
tion. Viewed in this light, and also as 
presenting one of the most curious 
specimens of a 'mixed language' which 
philologists have had the opportunity of 
analyzing, the Jargon setnns to merit 
a somewhat careful study." 

Another View. — "The Chinook Jargon 
was invented by the Hudson Bay Com- 
pany traders, who were mostly French- 
Canadians. Having to trade with the 
numerous tribas inhabiting the coun- 
tries west of the Rocky Mountains, it 
was necessary to have a language un- 
derstood by. all. Hence, the idea of 
composing the Chinook Jargon. Fort 
Vancouver being the principal post, the 
traders of the twenty-nine forts belong- 
ing to the company, on the western 
slope, and the Indians from every part 
of that immense country, had to come 
to Vancouver for the trading season. 
They used to learn the Chinook, and 
then teach it to others. In this manner 
it befcame universally known. The two 
first missionaries to Oregon, Rev. F. N. 
Blanchet, V. G., and his worthy com- 
panion. Rev. Mod. Demers, arrived from 
Canada to Vancouver on the 24th of No- 
vember, 1838. They had to instruct 
numerous tribes of Indians, and the 
wives and children of the whites, who 
spoke only the Chinook. The two mis- 
.sionaries set to work to learn It, and in 
a few weeks Father Demers had mas- 
tered it, and began to preach. He com- 

posed a vocabulary which was very use- 
ful to other missionaries. He composed 
several canticles which the Indians 
learned and sang with taste and de- 
light. He also translated all the Chris- 
tian prayers in the same language. Such 
is the origin of the Chinook Jargon, 
which enabled the two first missionaries 
in the country to do a great deal of 
good among the Indians and half- 
breeds." — Rev. L. N. St. Onge. . 

Judg'e Swan's Opinion: "This Jargon 
is composed of Chinook, French and 
English languages, and is supposed by 
many to have been formed by the Hud- 
son Bay Company for trading purposes. 
Such, however, is not the fact. There 
have been constant additions to the Jar- 
gon since the advent of the Hudson Bay 
Company, for many of the words now 
in general use in this language are of 
French and English origin, but I think 
that, among the Coast Indians in par- 
ticular, the Indian part of the language 
has been in use for years. The first 
mention I have seen made of this Jar- 
gon is in Meare's voyages in 1788, where 
in giving an account of a chief named 
Callicum, who hurt his leg while climb- 
ing on board ship, and then sucked the 
blood from the wound, Meares states 
he "licked his lips, and, patting his 
belly, exclaimed, cloosli, cloosli, or good, 

Cloosli, or klose, or close, are all the 
same, and mean good. The different 
manner in which words are spelled is 
no evidence of a difference of meaning, 
for no two writers of Indian words 
fully agree as to the proper method of 
spelling. (Kloshe is spelled in the fol- 
lowing ways: Close, Closche, Clonch, 
klosche, klose, klosh, kloosh, tloos, tlosli, 
tlTisli, etc. — Editor). Still later than 
this, in 1803, Jewett, in his narrative 
of the ship Boston, at Nootka, gives a 
vocabulary of the words in common 
use among the Nootkans. * * "It is 
a language confined wholly, I believe, 
to our Northwestern possessions west 
of the Rocky Mountains. It originated 
in the roving, trading spirit of the 
tribes, and has been added to and in- 
creased since the introduction of the 
whites among them." — The Northwest 

Adj. Adjective. "The adjective pre- 
cedes the noun, as in English and Chi- 
nook; as, lasway hakatschnm, silk hand- 
kerchief; mesahchie tiliktuu, bad peo- 
ple." — Hale. 

Adv. Adverb. "The adverb usually 
precedes the adjective or verb which it 
qualifies, though it may sometimes fol- 
low the latter." — Hale. 



BelbeUa. Bellabella. "The popular 
name of an important Kwakiutl tribe 
living on Milbank Sd.. Brit. Col. The 
language spoken by this tribe is a 
peculiar dialect of Kwakiutl, called 
Heiltsuk from the native name of the 
Bellabella. When voyagers first began 
frequenting the N. Pacific Coast Mil- 
bank Id. was often visited, and its in- 
habitants were therefore among the first 
to be modified by European contact." — 
Hodge. See OlalUe. 

(C.) Clunookan family of languages. 
In 1841 the number of Chinook words 
in the Jargon numbered 111; in 1863, 
221; in 1894, 198, the number given in 
this dictionary. The letters C, E., P., 
H. and S. refer to the derivation of 
words, and signify Cliinook, Eng-lisli, 
French, Nootka, and Salish. See Cliinook. 

(C. & E.) Cliiiiook and Engrlisli. The 
letters C. & E. refer to the derivation of 
the word. 

(Can. Pr.) Canadian Prencli. The 
Canadian voyag-eurs, as they are called, 
were more closely in contact with the 
Indians than any others of the foreign- 
ers, from 1810 to 1855. See, bread, flour, 
overcoat, hat, axe, pipe, mill, table, box, 
head, mouth, tongue, teeth, neck, hand, 
foot, run, sing, dance, etc. When the 
Hudson's Bay Company removed from 
Oregon and Washington these Canadians 
also largely left, so a large share of 
these words of French origin have been 

Cathlamet. A Chinookan tribe form- 
erly residing on the south bank of Co- 
lumbia river, near its mouth, in Oregon. 
They adjoined the Clatsop. As a dialect, 
Cathlamet was spoken by a number of 
Chinookan tribes on both sides of the 
Columbia, extending up the river as far 
as Rainier. It is regarded as belonging 
to the upper Chinook division of the 
family. — Hodge. See, Skwls-kwis. 

Chihalis. ChehaliB. A collective name 
for several Salishan tribes on Chehalis 
river and its affluents, and on Grays 
Harbor, Wash. By many writers fhey 
are divided into Upper Chehalis, dwell- 
ing above Satsop river, and the Lower 
Chehalis, from that point down. This 
dictionary gives 36 words of Chehalis 
origin. See Blip, moosmn, etc. 

Chinook (from Tsinuk, their Chehalis 
name). The Chinook were first de- 
scribed by Lewis and Clark in 1805, 
though they had been known to traders 
for at least 12 years previously. From 
their proximity to Astoria and their in- 
timate relations with the early traders, 
the Chinook soon became well known, 
and their language formed the basis for 
the widely spread Chinook Jargon. 
Linguistically they were divided into 
two groups: (1) Lower Chinook, com- 
prising two slightly different dialects. 

the Chinook proper, and the Clatsop; 
(2) Upper Chinook, which included all 
the rest of the tribes, though with nu- 
merous slight dialectic differences. The 
dialects of the Lower Chinook are now 
practically extinct. Upper Chinook is 
still spoken by considerable numbers. 
See Cathlamet, Clatsop, Wasco. 

Chippeway. Chippewa. One of the 
largest tribes north of Mexico, whose 
range was formerly along both shores 
of Lake Huron and L. Superior, extend- 
ing across Minnesota to Turtle Mts., N. 
Dakota. See Tatoosh. 

Clallam. A Salish tribe living on the 
south side of Puget Sound, Wash., form- 
erly extending from Port Discovery to 
Hoko river, being bounded at each end 
by the Chimakum and Makah. Subse- 
quently they occupied Chimakum terri- 
tory and established a village at Port 
Townsend. — Hodge. See Tolnks. 

Clatsop. A Chinookan tribe. The 
Clatsop is merely a dialect of the Chi- 
nook. The language is now practically 

Clayoquot. A Nootka tribe living on 
Meares Id., and Torfino inlet, Clayoquot 
Sd., Vancouver Id. See Chako, kokshut, 

Conj. Conjunction. "Only two con- 
junctions, properly speaking, are found 
in the language, pe and spose." — Hale. 

Cree. An important Algonquian tribe 
of British America. The Cree are close- 
ly related, linguistically and otherwise, 
to the Chippewa. They were friendly 
from their first intercourse with the 
English and the French and the Hud- 
son Bay Co. See Mitass, moosmoos, 

Ex. Example. 

(E.) Eng-lish. "The words of English 
origin numbered in 1841, 41; In 1863, 
67, and in 1904, 570. Many words of 
French and Indian origin have been 
dropped. The English words are used 
both by Indians and whites when they 
talk Chinook, and so have become a part 
of the language." — Eells. 

(P.) Prench. In 1841, 34 words of 
French origin were in use, in 1863, 94 
words, and in 1894, 153 words. For 
words of French origin see letter Jm. 
About thirty words are in use now, and 
these will soon be dropped, as they are 
seldom used, except by the old folks. 

Interj. Interjection. Of these there 
are sixteen words and two phrases. 

(J) Jargfon. Words marked J are con- 
sidered to be the peculiar property of 
the Jargon, as having been formed 
either in imitation of sounds or by some 
casual invention. — Hale. Seee Onoma. 

Kalapuya. Kalapooian Pamily. A 
group of tribes formerly occupying the 
valley of Willamette river, N. W. Ore- 
gon, and speaking a distinct stock Ian- 




Klaokwat. See Clayoqnot. 
Kllkatat. KUkitat. A Shahaptian 
tribe whose former seat was at the head 
waters of the Cowlitz, Lewis, White 
Salmon, and Klickitat rivers, north of 
Columbia river, in Klickitat and Skama- 
nia counties, Wash. Their eastern neigh- 
bors were the Yakima, who speak a 
closely related language, and on the 
west they were met by various Salishan 
and Chinookan tribes. They were en- 
terprising traders, widely known as in- 
termediaries between the Coast tribes 
and those living east of the Cascade 
range. The Topenish are probably their 
nearest relatives. — Hodge. See Moos- 
moos, Nawitka, Hoolhool. 

Iiumini. A Salish tribe on and Inland 
from Bellingham Bay, N. W. Wash. 
The Lummi are now under the jurisdic- 
tion of the Tulalip school superintend- 
ent. Wa.shington. See KuUag-han. 

Makah. The southernmost tribe of 
the Wakashan stock, the only one within 
the United States. They belong to the 
Xootka branch. Bv treaty of Neah Bay, 
Wash.. Jan. 31, 1855. the Makah ceded 
all their lands at the mouth of the 
Strait of Fuca except the im- 
mediate area including Cape Flattery. 
The Ozette reservation was established 
by order of April 12, 1893. — Hodge. See 
Kloshe. Mahkook. 

n. ITouii. "There are far more nouns 
in the language than there are words 
in any other part of speech or even in 
all the other parts combined." — Eells. 

(N.) The letter M". refers to the deri- 
vation of the word, and signifies Nootka. 
Nootkas. the conventional generic name 
of all the tribes in Vancouver and oppo- 
site coast, many of whom speak totally 
different languages. — Keane. 

(N. & E.) The letters N. & E. refer 
to the derivation of the word, and sig- 
nify Nootka and English. 

Nisqually. "A Puget Sound (Colum- 
bian") nation, with many sub-tribes 
whose names end mostly in misli, and 
will thus be recognized without requir- 
ing to be indexed. — Keane. 

Wittinat. The Tokwaht. Nittinat and 
Makah quoted in the dictionary are 
dialects of the Nootka. (Ahts.) The 
generic name of most of the tribes on 
the west coast of Vancouver Island. All 
speak dialects of the same language. 
See klatawa, mahkook, mowitsli, peshak, 
wawa, winaisie. 

Onoma. Onomatopoeia. Eight or ten 
words were made by what grammarians 
term onomatopoeia — that is, were 
formed by a rude attempt to imitate 
sound, and are therefore the sole and 
original property of the Jargon. Con- 
sidpring its mode of formation, one is 
rather surprised that the number of 

these words is not greater. — Hale. See 
liplip, tintin, poo, tiktik, tumttuu, tum- 
wata, malish, klak, etc. 

prep. Preposition. There are nine 
words and tlireo pli rases which are used 
as prepo.sitioiis. The principal words 
are kopa sagrhalie, over; keekwulee, un- 
der; and kunamokst, with; kopa is, how- 
ever, used more than all the others, as 
it has a great variety of meanings, 
which can only be known by the con- 
nection, some of which are entirely op- 
posite to each other. 

pron. Pronoun. The pronouns are ten 
in number in the words and seven in 
the phrases, nearly all the latter being 
formed by the addition of self to the 
personal pronouns, as mika self, etc. 

Quaere u. d. Unknown or of unde- 
termined derivation. Unmarked words 
are of doubtful origin. 

(S.) Salish. "Salishan tribes held the 
entire northwestern part of Washington, 
including the whole of the Puget Sound 
region, except only the Macaw territory 
about Cape Flattery, and two insignifi- 
cant spots, one near Port Townsend, 
the other on the Pacific coast to the 
south of Cape Flattery, which were 
occupied by Chimakuan tribes. — Pilling. 

Tokwaht. Merely a dialect of the 

Twana. A Puget Sound tribe, former- 
ly Twana, but later known as Skoko- 
mish; west side Hood's Canal to the 
Olympics, from Skokomish river on the 
south to Quilcene, near Port Townsend, 
on the north. 

V. Verb. Verbs come third in num- 
ber in the words, being exceeded by 
nouns and adjectives, and second in 
phrases, and second in both combined. 
The word mamook placed before vari- 
ous other words forms 209 of these 

Wasco. A Sahaptin (Columbia) tribe, 
between the Rocky Mountains and the 
John Day river. 

Takama. The Yakima and Klikitat 
are dialects of one of the Sahaptin lan- 


Allen.. Ten Years in Oregon. Ithaca, 
1848; 1850; Thrilling adventures, N. Y. 

Armstrong*. Oregon. Chicago, 1857. 

Bancroft. The Native Races, vol. 3, 
pp. .'S5fi-557-631-635. S. F., 1882. 

Blanchet. Dictionary. McCormick, 
Portland, 1856; 1862; 1868; 1873; 1878; 

Boas. Chinook Jargon Songs, in Jl. 
Am. Folk-lore, vol. 1. 1888. 

Bolduc. Mission de la Colomble. Que- 
bec. 1843. 

Buchanan. Elementary lessons in the 
Chinook Jargon as used by the Indians 



of Puget Sound. (Mss.) Tulalip, 1900. 

Chamberlain. Words of Algonkian or- 
igin in the Chinook Jargon, in Science, 
vol. 18, 1891. 

Cliarency. Review of Horatio Hale's 
"International Idiom," in Le Museon, vol. 
10, 1891. 

Clooffh. On the existence of mixed 
languages. London, 1876. 

Cook. A voyage to the Pacific Oceon, 
vol. 2, pp. 335-336; vol. 3, pp. 540-546. 
London, 1785. 

Coomes. Dictionary. Seattle, 1891. 

Cox. Adventures on the Columbia Riv- 
er, vol. 2, p. 134. London, 3 831. The Co- 
lumbia River. London, 1832 (2 vols). 
Adventures on the Columbia River. N. 
Y., 1832. 

Crane. The Chinook Jargon; a review 
of Hale, in Brighton (England) Herald, 
no. 4883, p. 4, July 12, 1890. 

Demers. Deflnitio Dogmatis Immac- 
ulatae Conceptionis Beatissimae. (The 
Dogma is first given in latin, followed by 
the translation into the Chinook Jargon.) 
Typis Joannis Mariae Shea, Neo Ebora- 
censis, 1860. 

Demers, Blanchet, and St. On&fe. Dic- 
tionary, Catechism, Prayers' and Hymns. 
Montreal, 1871. 

Dictionary of Indian Tongues . . . 
Tsimpsean, Hydah, and Chinook Jar- 
gon. Victoria, 1862; 1865. 

Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon. 
(For the most part a reprint, with omis- 
sions, of Gibbs-Pilling). Victoria, 1871; 
1877; 1883; 1887; 1889, etc., to 1908. 

Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon. 
Olympia, 1873. 

Dunn. History of the Oregon Terri- 
tory. London, 1844; 1846. 

Dorien. Bible History . . . translat- 
ed into the Chinook Jargon. Benzlger, 
N. Y., Cincinnati, Chicago, and Kam- 
loops. B. C, 1893. 

Eells. Manuscript Dictionary of the 
Chinook Jargon, 5 vols, folio. Note from 
Eells" Introduction: "A number of dic- 
tionaries have been published in the 
Chinook Jargon language, and it may 
seem superfluous to write another; still 
thus far all of them are small and are 
based on the language as it was forty or 
fifty years ago. Gibbs* Dictionary was 
for many years by far the best, and is 
yet In many respects, as it gives the ori- 
gin of nearly all the words and much 
other valuable information, but it was 
written nearly forty years ago. I have 
used It very much in preparing this 
work. Hale's Trade Language of Ore- 
gon or Chinook Jargon Is recent and is 
excellent, especially in its Introductory 
part; far better than any which preceded 
it, but that excellent man and scholar 
has labored under the disadvantage of 
not having mingled much with those 
who have used the language for 
about fifty years, and so has been un- 

able to note a great share of the changes 
which have taken place. The dictiona- 
ries of Gill, Hibben, Tate, Lowman and 
Hanford and Good are all small; are in 
as condensed form as possible, being in- 
tended for pocket use for travellers, 
traders and learners, and in this way 
have done good work for what they were 
intended. The two latter, however, only 
have the Chinook English part. The 
dictionary of Durieu is very meager, 
while that of Demers and St. Onge is 
out of print, and both are intended rath- 
er more for use by the Catholics than 
by the public." . . . "Having used it 
(Jargon) for eighteen years, having 
talked in it, sung in it, prayed and 
preached in it, translated considerable 
into it, and thought in it, I thought I 
knew a little about the language, but 
when I began to write this dictionary I 
found that there was very much which 
I did not know about it, but which I 
wished to know in order to make this 
dictionary as perfect as it should be. 
This is especially so in regard to the 
pronunciation of words which are not 
used on Puget Sound, the introduction of 
new words, and the marking of those 
which are obsolete. In preparing these 
pages, I have tried to note the follow- 
ing items, — the different ways of spell- 
ing each word with the authority for 
each, the proper pronunciation, the ori- 
gin, part of speech, meaning, the place 
where it is used, if used at all, a sen- 
tence or more to show the use of a large 
share of the words, and the phrases 
which are derived from a combination 
of words, which answer to a single word 
in English." — Skokomish, Union City, 
March, 1893. 

Eells. How Languages Grow, in Ad- 
vance, March 25, and July 8, 1875, — re- 
lates wholly to the Chinook Jargon. Chi- 
cago, 1875. Hymns in the Chinook Jar- 
gon, Portland, 1878; 1889. The Chinook 
Jargon, in the Seattle Weekly Post-In- 
telligencer, vol. 1, no. 52, p. 4, column 8, 
Seattle, September 29, 1882. History of 
Indian Missions, Philadelphia, 1882. Ten 
Years of Missionary Work. Boston, 1886. 
The Twana, Chemakum, and Klallam In- 
dians, in Smithsonian Institution, Annual 
Rept. of the Board of Regents for 1887, 
part 1, pp. 605-681. Washington, 1889. 
Aboriginal geographic names in the state 
of Washington, in American Anthropol- 
ogist, vol. 5, pp. 27-35. Washington, 1892. 

Gallatin. Hale's Indians of N. W. 
America, in American Ethnological Soc. 
Trans., vol 2. N. Y., 1848. 

OatBcliet. Indian languages of the 
Pacific states and territories, in Maga- 
zine of American Hist., vol. 1, pp. 145- 
171. N. Y., 1877. 

Gibbs. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Col- 
lections (161), A Dictionary of the Chi- 
nook Jargon. Washington, 1863. N. Y., 



>amolsy press, 1863. 

Om. Dictionary, (ninth edition), Port- 
and, 1882; 1884; 1887; 1889; 1891. 

Good. Dictionary. Victoria, 1880. 

Green. Extracts from tlie report of an 
exploring tour on the N. W. coast of 
^.merica in 1829, in the missionary Her- 
ild, vol. 26, pp. 343-345. Boston, 1830. 

Haines. The American Indian. Chi- 
;a.aro, 1888. 

Hale. United States exploring expedi- 
;ion, vol. 6, Philadelphia, 1846. An In- 
ernational Idiom. London, 1890. 

Hazlitt. British Columbia and Van- 
;ouver Island. London, 1858. The Great 
Sold Fields of Cariboo. London, 1862. 

Jewltt. A narrative of the adventures 
ind sufferings of John R. Jewitt, — (writ- 
;en by Roland Alsop). Middletown, 1815. 
Second edition, 1815. N. Y., 1816; Mid- 
iletown, 1816; Middletown, 1820; Edin- 
burgh, 1824; Ithaca, 1849, 1851. The 
;:!aptive of Nootka. by Peter Parley, 
Philadelphia, 1861; 1869, and various oth- 
;r editions. 

Xiathani. The natural history of the 
.varieties of man, London, 1850. 

Iiee and Prost. Ten years in Oregon, 
ST. Y., 1844. 

lie Jeune. Practical Chinook Jargon 
/ocabulary, Kamloops, 1886, 1892. Kam- 
oops Wawa, a periodical in the Chinook 
rargon, 1891, etc. Chinook Primer, — 
Chinook and Shorthand, 1892. 

leland. The Chinook Jargon, in St. 
Fames Gazette, vol. 17, no. 2529, p. 6, 
London, July 13, 1888. An International 
[diom, a review of Hale, in the Saturday 
Review, vol. 30, no. 1822, pp. 377-378, 
London, Sept. 27, 1890. 

Xilonnet. Vocabulary, Washington, 

Macdonald. British Columbia and Van- 
:;ouver's Island, London, 1862. 

Macfie. Vancouver Id. and B. C, Lon- 
lon, 1865. 

Macleod. History of the Devotion to 
;he Blessed Virgin Mary in America, New 
fork, 1866. 

Montgromerie and De Horsey. A Few 
tVords collected from the languages 
spoken by the Indians in the neighbor- 
lood of the Columbia River and Puget's 
3ound, London, 1848. 

Nicoll. The Chinook language or Jar- 
gon, in Popular Science Monthly, vol. 35, 
Dp. 257-261, N. Y., 1889. 

Norris. The Calumet of the Coteau, 
Philadelphia, 1883. 

Palmer. Journal of Travels over the 
Rocky Mountains, Cincinnati, 1847; 1850; 
1851; 1852. 

Parker. Journal of an exploring tour 
beyond the Rocky Mountains ... in 
the years 1835-'37, Ithaca, 1838; 1840; 
1842; 1844; Auburn, 1846. 

Phillips. Totem Tales, Chicago, sev- 
eral editions. 

Pilling-. Bibliography of the Chinook- 

an Languages, including the Chinook 
Jargon, Washington, 1893. Bibliography 
of the Salishan Languages, Washington. 
1893. Bibliography of the Wakashan 
Languages, Washington, 1894. 

Proscli. Dictionary of the Chinook, 
Seattle, 1888. 

Beade. Chinook versus. Greek, in 
Montreal Gazette, vol. 119, no. 239, p. 4, 
October 6, 1890. 

Boss. Adventures of the First Settlers 
on the Oregon or Columbia River, Lon- 
don. 1849. 

Schoolcraft. Indian Tribes of the 
United States, vol. 5, pp. 548-551, Phila- 
delphia, 1851-1857; Philadelphia. 1884, 2 

Scouler. Observations on the Indigen- 
ous tribes of the N. W. coast of Amer- 
ica, in Royal Geog. Soc. of London, Jour, 
vol 11, pp. 215-251, London, 1841. On 
the Indian Tribes inhabiting the North- 
west Coast of America, in Edinburgh 
New Philosophical Jour., vol. 41, pp. 168- 
192, Edinburgh, 1846. Reprinted in the 
Ethnological Soc. of London Jour., vol. 
1, pp. 228-252, Edinburgh, n. d. 

Sproat. Scenes and Studies of Savage 
Life, London, 1868. 

Stuart. Montana as it is, New York, 

Swan. The Northwest Coast; or. Three 
Years' Residence in Washington Terri- 
tory, New York, 1857; London, 1857. 

Tate. Chinook, as spoken by the In- 
dians of Washington Territory, British 
Columbia and Alaska, Victoria, 1889. 

Tyler. Primitive Culture, London, 
1871; Boston, 1874; New York, 1874; 1877. 

Western Volapuk. A review of Hale, 
in the Critic, vol. 14, pp. 201-202, N. Y., 

Wilson. Prehistoric Man, vol. 2, pp. 
429-432, London, 1862; London, 1865, pp. 
586-588; London, 1876, vol. 2, pp. 334-338. 

Winthrop. The Canoe and the Sad- 
dle, adventures among the northwestern 
rivers and forests; and Isthmania, Bos- 
ton. 1863 C various editions). 

"Parker's Journal," pp. 336-388, 'Vo- 
cabulary of the Chenook Language, as 
spoken about Fort Vancouver. 

Hale's EtlmogTaphy and Philology of 
the United States Exploring- Expedition, 
pp. 636-650. A vocabulary of the "Jar- 
gon or Trade Language of Oregon," with 
an essay thereon, and phrases. A par- 
tial reprint of the above, in Transactions 
of the American Ethnological Society, 2 
vols., N. Y., 1845-1848. in vol. 2, pp. 62-70. 
— under title of "Hale's Indians of 
North West America." 

Bolduc's "Mission de la Columbie." 
The Lord's Prayer in Jargon, "et quel- 
ques mots Tchinoucs et Sneomus." The 
Snohomish is a tribe of Puget Sound. 
The Chinook words are merely Jargon. 

Palmer's Journal, pp. 147-152. "Words 



used in the Chinook Jargon." 

Boss. Adventures of the First Set- 
tlers on the Oregon or Columbia River. 
Ross gives a "Chinook Vocabulary," pp. 
342-348, and words of the "mixed dia- 
lect," p. 349. His Chinook is, however, 
also impure. 

Iioe and Prost. "A short vocabulary 
of the Clatsop dialect." This is likewise 

Schoolcraft. History, &c., of the In- 
dian Tribes of the U. S. Lieut. G. F. 
Emmons gives a brief "Klatsop Vocabu- 
lary," in Part 3, pp. 223-224, which is of 
the same character. Note 1, to article, 
"Philosophy of Utterance," Part 5, pp. 
548-551, a "vocabulary of the Chinook 

^lonnet. Vocabulary. Printed by the 
Smithsonian Institution, for private dis- 

Swan. N. W. Coast, pp. 412-422. "A 
vocabulary of the Chehalis and Chenook 
or Jargon Languages, with the deriva- 
tion of the words used in the latter." 

Winthrop. The Canoe and the Saddle, 
pp. 299-302. "A partial vocabulary of the 
Chinook Jargon." 

Dunn. History of the Oregon Terri- 
tory. "A few specimens of the language 
of the Millbank and Chinook tribes." 
Chinook tribe: 50 words and phrases, in- 
cluding digits. These words, as usual, 
are in great part "Jargon," and belong to 
the Nootkan, not to the Chinook." 

Parker "gives 103 words and phrases." 

St. Ong-e "gives 787 Chinook words and 
phrases with no English-Chinook part." 

lee and Prost. "In the appendix are 
50 words which the authors say are in 
the Clatsop dialect, but which Gibbs says 
are in the Jargon. I think some are 
Clatsop, but some are undoubtedly Jar- 

Dunn. "Thirty Chinook Jargon words 
and expressions." 

Swan. "In the appendix is quite a full 
vocabulary, — 327 words. Judge Swan 
lived on Shoalwater Bay. Wash., near 
the Chehalis and Chinook Indians, and he 
gives quite a number of words which 
are given by no other writer, which he 
says are of Chehalis origin. Gibbs re- 
jects many of these, because he thinks 
that Swan imperceptibly used them as 
Chinook Jargon, but that they did not 
properly belong to the language, but to 
the Chehalis. I have inserted them as 
being a part of the Jargon of that region 
at that time, as certainly many English 
words now in use on Puget Sound are a 
part of the Jargoh of this time and place. 

The environment always aftects the lan- 

aibbs. "This was by far the best dic- 
tionary at that time and will ever re- 
main a standard authority on the lan- 
guage of that time. In the Chinook- 
English Part are 490 words, and in the 
English-Chinook. 792." 

Winthrop. "Two hundred and sixty- 
one Chinook words. There is no Eng- 
lish-Chinook part. 

Hibben. "The author's name is not 
given, but it is believed to be Lionnet. 
It gives very nearly the same words as 
Gibbs in both parts." 

Good. "It has no Chinook-English 
part. In the English-Chinook he gives 
825 words." 

Durieu. "431 Chinook Jargon words. 
No English-Chinook part." 

Tate. "It follows Gibbs very closely." 

Hale. "473 Chinook Jargon words; 634 
in the English-Chinook part." 

Gill. "This with its predecessors has 
been the standard for Oregon for over 
thirty years. It was first published by 
S. J. McCormick, and its latest reviser 
is Rev. W. C. Chatten. In the Chinook- 
English part are 560 words, and in the 
English-Chinook, 1378." 

Coomes. [L. & H.] "It follows Gill 
very closely in its Chinook-English part 
and has no English Chinook part." 

Boas. "Gives a short vocabulary of 75 
words in the Journal of American Folk 
Lore, pp. 225-226, obtained at Victoria, 
B. C, and 24 words, obtained at Shoal- 
water Bay, Wash. — in Science, March 4, 
1892, p. 129. A few words are also given 
by authority of Dr. W. C McKay, late 
of Pendleton, Oregon." 

"A comparison of these dictionaries 
shows Gibbs to be the most scientific and 
thorough in all things except the spell- 
ing. Hibben and Tate agree with it very 
closely. Hale is a little more independ- 
ent, but gives the best grammar and lit- 
erature of all. Gill's is the fullest, and 
is still more independent. Lowman and 
Hanford's (Coomes) is almost exactly 
like the Chinook-English part of Gill's. 

St. Onge's is entirely independent ofj 
all the others, and the most scientific ii 
the spelling; Durieu's is meagre, but 
more nearly like St. Onge's than any oth-^ 
er in regard to spelling. Good's is thf 
most modern, omitting many obsolet€ 
words, and introducing many new ones," 
but his spelling is at fault, as he often 
spells the same words In different ways, 
even three or four ways. The rest of the 
dictionaries are local and small, but valu- 
able because gathered so early." 





Alm'-kut-tie, or Ah'n-kut-te, adv. (C) 
(CMnook.-ankutti.) Formerly; before 
now; long- agfo; anciently; agfo. (With 
the accent prolonged on the first 
syllable, a very long time ago; an- 
ciently. The longer the first syllable is 
held, the longer the time expressed.) 
Example: Hyas anlikuttie, — a very long 
time ago. Tenas almkuttie, — a little 
while ago. Kunjih laly almkuttie? — 
how long ago? Tahtlum sun almkuttie, 
—ten days ago. (Siali almkuttie, — very 
ancient, — lit., far ago. A great deal is 
expressed by the mere stress of the 
voice; liyas — dwelling long on the last 
syllable — means exceedingly great; 
hyak, very quick; liiyu, a great many; 
tenas, very small, &c.) Delate ahnkut- 
tie, — very long ago. "In Chinook the 
verb is absolutely inflexible, it never 
changes its form for mood, tense or any- 
thing else; these are always indicated 
by the agglutination of a word indicat- 
ing the mood, tense, etc. The idea of 
tense is most simple and rudimentary, 
that is, past, present and future; alm- 
kuttie, alta, alki." — Buchanan. 

Note — "A Chinook word is elastic and 
expresses a broad and general idea rath- 
er than one altogether specific, hence the 
extreme elasticity of the Chinook jar- 
gon. Specific ideas must be expressed by 
qualifiers or modifiers added to the word, 
as will be readily seen in practice. Each 
word is a tool whose general uses and 
whose specific uses must be mastered be- 
fore successful work can be done or sat- 
isfactory progress be made." — Buch- 

anan. Ex.: Anhkuttie mama, — a grand- 
mother. Almkuttie papa, — a grandfa- 
ther; an ancestor; forefather; progen- 
itor. Almkuttie tillikums, — ancestors; 
ancient people. Almkuttie tillikums 
klaska wawa, — traditions. Almkuttie 
laly, — long ago. 

"Time: Present, Past and Future. In 
indicating time in the Chinook jargon 
the verb does not change its form at all; 
it is absolutely inflexible as far as 
change of the word form is concerned, 
and the idea of time is added by adding 
a word to indicate that — thus alki (by 
and by), after awhile, in the future) to 
indicate future time; ahncutty (in the 
past, some time ago, a long time ago, 
once upon a time) to indicate past time; 
and alta (now) to indicate present time 
where it is important to emphasize the 
fact that present time and only pres- 
ent time is indicated. Ordinarily if the 
time is omitted or not specifled it is un- 
derstood to be present time, naturally. 
Intensity of meaning or duration of time 
may also be indicated by prolongation 
of the sounding of a word, thus: laly 
(time) — la-a-a-aly (a long time). This 
is based upon an instinctive principle 
common to all tongues, just as we in 
English phonetically indicate prolonga- 
tion of time or extension in space or in- 
tensity of feeling by means of the into- 
nation. So we say 'a long time' and 'a 
lo-o-o-o-ng time." — Buchanan. 

Note — "A thorough knowledge of a few 
dozen words will give one svifficient ma- 
terial with which, after actual practice, 
to carry on ordinary conversations. In 
practice the sentences are built up by 
agglutination or association of words, 
just as a child builds houses and various 
other wonderful structures from its 
blocks. In so doing there is always a 

Note. The letters (C)., (E)., (P)., 

(N). and (S). refer to the derivation of 
words, and signify CMnook, En?lisli, 
French, ITootka, and Salish. Words 
marked (J) are considered to be the pe- 
culiar property of the Jargon, as hav- 
ing been formed either in imitation of 
sounds or by some casual invention. 
Words marked (Quaere u. d.) are of 

doubtful or undetermined origin. The 
cognates follow in parenthesis, as, (C). 
(Cliinook.-ankutti). A pronouncing vo- 
cabulary immediately follows the list 
of useful words. A supplemental vocab- 
ulary of archaic or unusual words comes 
next. Then follows the English-Chinook 
part. (See Explanatory notes.) 


very wide sphere for the exercise of in- 
genuity on the part of the speaker, and 
upon this, in a measure, depends the 
skill with which he may handle Chinook 
and convey his thoughts therein. The 
jargon is essentially a spoken and not a 
written tongue — it is very macli alive. 
Spellingr. There are no hard and fast 
rules for the spelling of words, and ev- 
eryone in writing Chinook follows the 
dictates of his own judgment in the 
fabrication of phonetic equivalents, 
which are at best only approximations," 
— Buchanan. 

"It may not at first be easy to com- 
prehend how a language composed of so 
few words, thus inartiflcially combined, 
can be extensively used as the sole me- 
dium of communication among many 
thousand individuals. . . . But it 
is in the faculty of combining and com- 
pounding its simple vocables — a power 
which it doubtless derives, in some de- 
gree, from its connection with the In- 
dian tongues — that the jargon has its 
capacity for expression almost indefi- 
nitely extended. Three or four hundred 
words may be learned without difficulty 
in a week or two, and a very short time 
will make the learner familiar with 
their ordinary use and construction. He 
will then have no difficulty in under- 
standing the numerous compounds 
which, if they had been simple words, 
would have cost him much additional la- 
bour." — Hale. 

Al'-ki, adv. (C). (Cliinook, alekli). In 
the future; by and by; after a while; 
soon; presently; directly; in a little 
while; hold on; not so fast. "The sign 
of the future tense, shall or will. The 
days of the week, and the number of 
weeks, months and years are also used 
to designate the tenses." — Eells. Ex.: 
Wika kumtuks, — I understand, Nika 
kumtuks alta, — I understand now. Nika 
kumtuks ahnkuttie, — I understood; I 
understood some time ago. 

Hika kumtuks alki, — I will under- 
stand; I will understand by and by; I 
will understand after a while. This 
indicates the manner of indicating 
tense, that is. indicating time. " — Bu- 
chanan." September 25, 1851. While 
looking around Low and Terry con- 
cluded to locate a townsite, and with 
that view made a joint location on Alki 
Point. The Terrys being New Yorkers, 
first named the place New York, but 
afterwards changed it to Alki which all 
old settlers know signifies "by and by," 
"before long". — A. A. Denny. Tenas 
alki, — in a little while. Alki nika klata- 
wa, — I will go presently, Zskum doUa, 
alki pay, — to borrow. 

Alki nesika klatawa kopa nika boat, — 
soon we will go in my boat. 

"Tn general the tense of the verb is 
left to be inferred from the context. 

When it is absolutely necessary to dis- 
tinguish time, certain adverbs are em- 
ployed: as chee, alta, alki, ahnkuttie, 
okoke-sun, tomolla, tahlkie, ikt tahlkie." 
— Hale. 

Al'-ta, or Al'tah, adv. (C). (Chinook, 
altakh). Now, at the present time. Ex.: 
Alta yaka chako, — now he comes. Nika 
skookum alta, — I am strong now, wake 
alta, — ^not now. 

Ats, n. (C). (Chinook,-ats. Yakima,- 
atse). A sister; a young-er sister. In 
the original, only when used by her 
brother. Ex.: Elip ats, — an older sis 
ter. Ats yaka man,— ^ brother-in-law. 
Mama, or papa yaka ats, an aunt, (see 
kahpho). "Sister is used on Puget 
Sound. Sister yaka tenas klootchman, 
— a niece." — Boas. (The word Ats is 
becoming obsolete.) 


Boat, n. (English, idem). A boat, as 
distinguished from a canoe; a skiff. 
Ex.: Kopa boat, — aboard. Klahanie 
kopa boat, — overboard. 

Book, n. (English,-idem). A book; 
volume; pocketbook. Example: Sagha- 
lie Tyee yaka book, — The Bible. (Lit- 
erally, — God, his book). Tenas book, — 
a pamphlet. Book yaka mamook kum- 
tuks nesika kopa illahee, — a geography. 
Book yaka mamook kumtuks nesika 
kopa kwimniun, — an arithmetic. Book 
yaka mamook kumtuks nesika kopa la- 
lang, — a grammar. Book yaka mamook 
kumtuks nesika kopa nesika, — a phy- 
siology. Book yaka mamook kumtuks 
nesika kopa stone, — a geology. 

Bos'-ton, n., adj. An American; Amer- 
ican. A name derived from the hailing- 
place of the first trading ships to the 
Pacific. Example: .Boston illahie, — the 
United States. Mika kumtuks Boston 
wawa? — do you understand English? 
Boston plie, — protestantism. Sitkum- 
siwash-sitkum-Boston, — a half-breed. 

By-by, adv. (E). By-and-by; after »1 
while; sometime hence. It means al 
longer time in the future than alki, butj 
like that is used for shall or will as 
sign of future time. With the accen< 
on the first syllable, prolonged, it meanl 
a very long time hence. 

Ca-nim, n. (C). (Chinook,-Ekanim).1 
A canoe. .Ex.: Canim stick, — the cedar* 
or wood from which canoes are usually 
made. Klatawa kopa canim, — to em- 


Ca-po', n. (E). (Pre(iicli,-Capot). A. 

Cha'-ko, chah'-ko, or chalico, v. (N). 
Nootka, clayoquot, — chako; Tokwaht, — 
tchokwa). To come; to approach; to be 
or become. "In this latter sense it 
forms the passive voice in connection 
with many other words. Often it is 
joined with adjectives and nouns, and 
forms other verbs. Taka chako pabt- 
Itim, he is drunk; nika cbako keekwulee, 
— I am degraded; yaka chako stone, — it 
is petrified. Perhaps more properly the 
word in this connection to become, than 
to be, at least it is often so, as in the 
latter example the meanin.g wotild also 
be, — to become stone; chako rotten, — is 
to become rotten. Occasionally too the 
passive voice Is shown by placing the 
word iskum before the main word, as, 
yaka isknm kow, — he is arrested." — 
Eells. Ex.: Nika chako kopa Foteland, 
— I came from Portland. Kloshe mika 
hyak chako, — g-ood you come quick. 
Chuck chako, — the tide is rising — (liter- 
ally, is coming). Chuck chako pe klata- 
wa. — the tiries. Halo chako, — to linger. 
Wake kunjih yaka chako halo, — Indel- 
lible. — (literally, — never will it become 
gone). Chako Boston, — to become an 
American; often said of Indians who are 
becominer civilized like white people. 
Chako delate, — to become right, true, or 
good. Cha^o delate till, — to become ex- 
hausted. Chako hyas tum tum, — to be- 
come proud. Chako huloima, — to vary; 
to become different. Chako kah nika 
nanitch, — to appear. Chako kloshe tum- 
tum, — to love; to reform; to become- 
fri'^ndly; to get a good heart. Chako 
yioshe, — to get well: to become good. 
Chako kunamokst, — to congregate; as- 
s'^'mble; convene; meet: unite; join. 
Chako mimolouse, — to die; to become 
rotten; to become decayed (as potatoes 
or vegetables). Chako pahtlum, — to be- 
come drunk. Chako skookum, — to be- 
come strong, esnecially after a sickness, 
to show complete recovery. Chako sol- 
leks, — to become angry; to quarrel. 
Chako pelton, — to become foolish; to be 
cheated. Chako waum tumtum, — to be 
earnest; to become excited. Chako 
youtl tumtum, — to become glad; to be 
glad. Chako polaklie, — to become dark; 
night is coming. Chako oleman, — to be- 
come old. Chako halo, — to be destroyed; 
tn disappear; to vanish; to be all gone. 
Chako clip hiyu, — to exceed. Chako 
kunamokst nika.^ — come with me. 

Chee, adv., adj. (C). (Chinook,-t'shi). 
lately; just now; new; fresh; oricrinal; 
recent. Example: Chee nika ko, — I 
have just arrived. Hyas chee, — entirely 
new, very new. Chee chako, — a new 
comer; just arrived. Delate chee, — en- 
tirely new. Klootchman yaka chee ma- 
lieh, — a bride. 

Chik'-a-min, n., adj. (N). (Tokwaht,- 

tsikamen ;Nootka, — sickamlnny ( Jewitt) ; 
seekemaile, — (Cook). Iron; metal; met- 
allic; steel; money; cash; mineral. Ex- 
ample: T'kope chikamin, (white metal), 
silver. Fil chikamin, or chikamin pil 
(yellow metal), — gold or copper. Chika- 
min lope, — wire; a chain. Nika hyas 
tikeg-h chikamin. — I very much wish 
money. Zllahee kah chikamin mitlite, — 

Chik'-chik, (Tsik'-tsik, or Tchlk'- 
tchik), n. (J). By onoma, A wa^on; 
a cart; a wheel; any wheeled vehicle. 
Example: Tsiktsik way hut, — a wagon - 
road. Nika chako kopa chikchik, — I 
came in a wagon. Fiah chikchik, — rail- 
road cars, lolo kopa chikchik, — to haul 
in a wagon. 

Chinook — ♦(Chinook Indians). These 
Indians formerly lived near the mouth 
of the Columbia river, where the Chi- 
nook Jargon language was mainly de- 
veloped in its formative period, and 
hence more words were adopted into it 
from that language than any other In- 
dian language, and so its name was 
given to the language. Properly speak- 
ing the Chinook language means the old 
Chinook, and the Chinook Jargon the 
language described in this dictionary; 
but the old Chinook is about obsolete, 
and for the save of brevity, Chinook 
wawa means in common conversation 
the Chinook Jargon, while the proper 
language of the Chinook tribe is called 
the Old Chinook. The Chinook land and 
Chinook Indians have, however, refer- 
ence to the tribe as it formerly existed. 

Chinook wind. The Chinook is always 
a strong, steady southerly wind, never 
from any other point of the compass, 
unless it be slightly southwe.sterlv. It 
is distinctly nf^culiar to the Northwest 
Pacific coast and its s.ource is far out in 
the nasty storm center of the Pacific 
ocean, emanating from the famed Japan 
current, which is the source of the re- 
markable humidity of the North Pacific 

Chinook canim, — the large canoe used 
on Puget Sound. Chinook illahee, — the 
land of the Chinook Indians. Chinook 
tillikums, — the Chinook Indians. Chi- 
nook wawa, — the Chinook language. Ex- 
ample: Mika kumtux Chinook wawa? Do 
you understand the Chinook language? 

Chitsh. n. (S). rChehalis.-tshitsh). A 
prandmother. (Gibbs, Gill. Hibben, St. 
Onge and Swan, give chope for errand- 
father; but Hale and Tate give the 
meaning as grandfather and chope as 
grandmother. Eells says "I never heard 
either word used on Puget Sound." Eells 
gives the following: Ex.: Grandmother, 
— mama yaka mama; grandmama; nitz, 
Fapa yaka -oapa, — grandfather. Tenas 
yaka tenas klootchman, — granddaughter. 
Tenas yaka tenas man, — grandson. Te- 


nas yaka tenas, — grandchild. 

Chope, n. (S). (Cliilijalis,-tshup). A 
grandfatlier. (Hale says, a grand- 
mother). See chltsh. 

Chuck, n. (N). (MTootka.-Chauk (Cook); 
Chahak, — fresh water (Jewitt); Cliinook,- 
Tltsuk (Shortess); Clatsop.-Tl'chukw). 
Water; a river or stream. Example: 
Salt chuck, — the sea; skookum chuck, — 
(powerful water), — a rapid; soUeks 
chuck, — a rough sea; chuck chahko or 
kalipi, — the tide rises or falls; saghali 
and keekwillie chuck, — high and low 
tide. Kah mitlite chuck? — where is the 
water? Muchamuck chuck, — to drink 
water. Olo kopa chuck, — thirsty. 

Cly, or kely, v. (E). To cry, lament; 
mourning*, weeping*. Ex.: Cly tumtum, 
— to cry in the heart; to feel sorry; to 
repent; to mourn; to be full of grief or 
emotion; "more deep in feeling than sick 
tumtum." — Eells. 

Cole, adj. (E). Cold; a year. Ex.: 
Hyas cole, — very cold; freezing. Cole 
illahee, — winter. Cole snass, — hail; snow. 
Cole chuck, — ice; cold water. Cole sick, 
— ague; a cold. Cole sick-waum sick, — 
fever and ague. Ikt cole, — a year. Taht- 
lum cole, — ten years. Ikt tukamonuk 
cole, — a century. Kah cole chako, — 
north. Kah delate cole mitlite, — Arctic. 

Coo'-ley, V. (F). (French, Courez, imp. 
of Courir). To rxm; g*o about; play; 
walk; travel. Example: Cooley kiua- 
tan, — a race-horse; yahka hyas kumtuks 
cooley, — he can, i. e., knows how to run 
well. Cultus cooley, — to saunter; ram- 
ble; stroll. Hyak cooley, — to run; canter; 
go fast. Kopet cooley, — to halt; to stop. 
Mamook cooley kopa huloima lalang*, — 
i. e. — to make go in another language; 
to interpret. 

Co'-sho, n. (F). (French,-cochon). A 
hog*; pork; pig*; swine; ham; hacon. Ex- 
ample: Siwash cosho, — a seal; literally, 
— Indian pig. Dly cosho, — bacon; ham. 
Kloochman cosho, — a sow. Tenas cosho, 
— a pig. Cosho g*lease, — lard. Cosho itl- 
willie, — pork. 

CouJt, n. (E). A court. Ex.: Haul 
kopa cotirt, — to try in court. Hyas court, 
— supreme court. Mamook court, — to 
hold court. Tzum man kopa court, — 
the clerk of the court. Tyee kopa court, 
— a judge. Iiolo kopa hyas court, — to 
appeal. Wawa kopa cotirt, — to testify; 

Cul'-tus, or Kul'tus, adj. (C.) (Chi- 
nook,-Kaltas). Worthless; g-ood for 
nothing-; without purpose; ahject, bar- 
ren; "bad; common; careless; defective; 
dissolute; filthy; foul; futile; rude; im- 
material; impertinent; impolite; no mat- 
ter; shabby; slippery; unmeaning*; unto- 
ward; useless; paltry; worn out. "A few 
words," says Eells, "are very expressive, 
meaning so much, and expressing that 
meaning in so much better a way than 
our English words do that they have 

often been adopted into Eijglish in the 
region where the Chinook is used. Of 
these may be mentioned cultus, — good 
for nothing, with also twenty-three other 
meanings. Kloshe, with its forty-two 
meanings; Kloshe nanitch, with its 
eighteen meanings; Tamahnous, sorcery, 
yet referring as a noun, adjective and 
verb, to anything supernatural, or in 
the spirit world between Satan on the 
one hand and CrOd on the other: TUmtum, 
mind, with its fifteen . meanings; and 
wawa, talk, with its sixty-five mean- 
ings." Example: Cultus man, — a 
worthless fellow. Cultu* potlatch, — a 
present or free gift; a benefaction. 
Cultes heehee, — a jest; merely laughing. 
Cultus nannitsh, — to look around. Cultus 
mitlite, — to sit idle; to do nothing. Cul- 
tus klatawa, — to stroll. Cultus eena, — a 
muskrat. Ques. What do you want? 
Ans. Cultus, i. e., nothing. Cultus kopa 
mika, — none of your business; nothing 
to you. Cultus kopa nika, — I do not 
care; nothing to me. Cultus potlatch 
tumtum, — to give advice; to advise; to 
counsel. Cultus wawa, — a joke; a jest; 
nonsense; rumor; tattle; report. Delate 
cultus, — no manner of use. "Cultus, — 
idle, aimless, worthless; also bad, in the 
sense of having no value, that is being 
useless." — Buchanan. 


De-late', or De-lett, adj., adv. (F). 
(French,-droite). Straig*ht; direct; with- 
out equivocation; true; truly, exactly; 
correct; exact; g-enuine; just; plain; pre- 
cise; really; thoroug*h; sincerely; surely; 
sincere; sure; accurate; verily; un- 
doubted; authentic; certain; definite; 
definitely; erect; very; correctly. Ex' 
ample: Klatawa delate, — go straight 
Delate wawa, — tell the truth; a fact: 
promise; true talk. Delate kwinnum 
cole ahnkuttie, — just five years ago. De- 
late nika sick tumtum, — I am very sorry. 
Okoke delate, — it is right. Wake delate, 
— not exactly right; imperfect. Wawa 
delate, — to speak the truth; to speak 
correctly. Delate hyas, — stupendous; 
immense; enormous. Delate hyas kloshe, 
— magnificent; majestic; very,, very 
good. Delate kloshe, — perfect: pure, ex- 
quisite; very good. Delate kumtuks, — 
sure; to prove; to know certainly. De- 
late pahtl, — brimfull; chockfull. Delate 
sick tum tum, — grief; very sad. Delate 
tenas sun, — ^^dawn; daybreak. Delate 
yaka illahee, — a native; native land. De- 
late yaka kumtuks, — an expert. Delate 
nika wawa, — I am speaking the truth. 

Diaub, Deaub, Dahblo, or Yaub, — (the 
devil) see Lejaub. 

D'ly, or De-ly, ad. (E). Dry; arid; 


dryness. Example: Chahko dely, — to 
become dry. Slamook dely, — to dry. Dly 
tupso, — hay. 

Doc'-tin, n. (!:)• A doctor; a physi- 
cian; surg-eon. Eells says, "It almost 
universally refers to a white man, un- 
less some word is connected with it to 
qualify it." Example: Niba tikeg-h doc- 
tiu, — I want the doctor. Siwash. doctin, 
— an Indian doctor or conjurer. Doctin 
kopa letali or teeth, — a dentist. Doctin 
kopa seahost, — an oculist. 

Dol'-la, or Tahla, n. (E). A dollar; 
money; cash; funds. Example: Chika- 
min dolla, — silver; pil dolla, — gold; sit- 
knm dolla, — half a dollar. Dolla seahost, 
(silver eyes), — spectacles. .Klone dolla, 
— three dollars. Halo nika dolla, — I have 
no money. Ipsoot potlatch dolla kopa 
tyee, — to bribe. Hiyu dolla, — rich. Kil- 
apie dolla, — to refund. Kunjih dolla, — 
what price. 

Dutchman, n. (English,-idem). (A 
German; a Dutchman; almost any Euro- 
pean except a Frenchman or Englishman. 

E'-lip, or El'-ip, adv. (S). (Chehalis,- 
ilip). First; before; the superlative; toe- 
gfinning-; prior; ahead; senior; elder; for- 
mer; orig-inal. "The comparative is usu- 
ally formed by prefixing the word elip 
to the adjective, as kloshe, good; elip 
kloshe, better; skookum, strong; elip 
skookum, stronger; hiyu, many; elip hi- 
yu, more; tenas, small; elip tenas, small- 
er. The superlative is properly formed 
by adding the words kopa konoway, 
'than all' to the comparative, as elip 
kloshe kopa konoway, better than all, 
i. e., the best." — Eells. "There is no 
such thing in Chinook as comparison by 
inflection of a word as is the case in 
English (weak, weaker, weakest ,for ex- 
ample). This is done by means of the 
words elip or kimtah to indicate the com- 
parative degree (the word itself always 
indicating, as in English, the positive 
degree). Delayt added to the compara- 
tive form converts it into the superlative 
from. Klosh, elip klosh, delayt elip 
klosh. Klosh, kimtah klosh. Delayt kim- 
tah klosh." — Buchanan. "Comparison is 
expressed by a periphrasis. 'I am 
stronger than thou,' would be wake mika 
skookum kahkwa nika; lit., 'thou not 
strong as I.' The superlative is indi- 
cated by adverbs; as hyas oleman okook 
canim, that canoe is the oldest, lit., 'very 
old that canoe." — -Hale. (A few other 
ways of spelling the word elip; alip; 
ilip; ellip; ilep; ilips.) Ex.: Elip hyas,— 
larger; greater; major. Elip hyas kopa 
konoway, — largest; greatest. Elip hiyu, 

— more; majority; excess. Elip hiyu 
kopa konoway, — most; maximum. Elip 
keekwilee, — lower. Elip keekwilee kopa 
konoway, — lowest. Elip kloshe, — better; 
superior; more excellent. Elip kloshe 
kopa konoway, — best; supreme. Elip 
kloshe kopa okoke, — better than that. 
Elip sitkum sim, — forenoon. Elip tenas, 
— first born; minor; less; younger. Elip 
tenas kopa konoway, — least; youngest. 
Elip sag-halie, — higher; upper. Elip saj- 
halie kopa konoway, — highest. Elip mes- 
achie, — worse. Elip mesachie kopa kono- 
way, — worst. Elip siah, — farther. Elip 
siah kopa konoway, — farthest. Elip 
tikegrh, — to prefer; rather; choose. Elip 
wawa, — a preface; a prophecy. Mika 
klatawa elip, nika kimta, — you go first. I 
(will go) afterwards." — Eells. Ex.: "Elip 
sitkum tintin, — before half an hour. Elip 
sitkum Sim, — before noon; forenoon. 
Kimtah, — after; behind. Kimtah klosh, 
— worse. Kimtah skookum, — less strong; 
not so strong. Delayt kimtah klosh, — 
worst. HelSiyt kimtah skookum, — least 
strong. Elip tahkum tintin, — before six 
o'clock. Kimtah tahkum tintin, — after 
six o'clock. Tahkum tintin, — six o'clock, 
six hours. Wake siah tahkum tintin, — 
almost six o'clock; not far away from 
six o'clock." — Buchanan. 

En'-a-ti, eneti, eenati, or inati, adv., 
prep. (C). (Chinook,-inatai). Across; 
beyond; opposite to; on the other side 
of. Ex.: Nika tikeg^ klatawa enati 
kopa chuck, — I wish to go across the 
water. Vaka mitlite enati kopa city, — 
he lives opposite to the city. 


Get-up, or Ket-op, v. (E). To g-et up; 
rise ; risen. 

Glease, n. (E). Grease; fat or oil. Ex- 
ample: Hiyu g-lease, — very fat; too- 
toosh g'lease, — butter; glease piah, — 
candle. See, also. Lakles. 


Ha'h-lakl, v., adj. (C). (Chinook,-hal- 
akl). Wide; open. Example: Mamook 
hahlakl la pote, — open the door; chahko 
hahlakl (as of the woods), to open out; 
become less dense. Mamook hahlakl, — • 
to open. 

Hak'-at-shum, n. (E). . A handker- 

Ha'-lo, adj. (Quaere u. d. not Chinook). 
Not; none; absent; no; all g'one; devoid; 
vacant; without. Example: Ques. Halo 
salmon mika? — have you no fish? Ans. 
Halo, — none. Ques. Kah mika papa? — 


where is your father? Ans. Ealo, — he 
is out. Halo wind, — breathless; dead. 
Halo g-lease, — lean. Halo iktahs, — poor; 
destitute; no goods. Halo mitlite,— 
nothing remains; empty. Halo seahost, 
—(no eyes), blind. Halo doUa, — without 
money. Yaka wind chAko lialo, — to die; 
he is dead, (literally, — his wind is all 
gone). Eells says: "Generally a more 
sure way of speaking of death than to 
say <Yaka mimoluse," — he is dead; be- 
cause the latter sometimes means sus- 
pended animation; but the former never." 
Halo chako, — to linger; not to come. 
Halo delate kiuntuks, — to be in doubt; to 
be obscure. Halo Imloima, — ultimate; 
nothing different. Halo hyas mahkook, — 
cheap; not very dear. Halo iktas, — 
nothing. Halo kah, — nowhere. Halo 
kumtuks, — to misunderstand; not to 
know. Halo nika kwass kopa yaka, (lit- 
erally, — I am not afraid of him, — he is 
reliable). Halo nika tikesrli, — I don't 

Note: (Halo) A negative. It means 
much the same as wake. Probably prop- 
erly wake means no, and halo all gone, 
but on Puget Sound lialo is used for 
no, the same as wake is in Oregon and 
other localities. Custom uses halo in 
some combinations and wake in others, 
and both in some. On Puget Sound, 
wake kloshe is proper. The indefinite 
pronouns are ktmamoxt, — both; halo, 
— none; konoway, — all; hiyu, — much or 
many; tenas, — few or little; huloima, — 

Haul, v. (E). (Engrlish.-idem). To 
haul or pull; draw; bring-; dig-; pick; 
drasr; subtract; tow; attract; extract. 
Used with the active verb mamook; as. 
mamook haul. Example: Mamook haul 
wapato, — to dig potatoes. Mamook haul 
tenas man kopa school, — to bring the boy 
to school. Skookum mamook haul, — 
must. Mamook haul yaka tumtum, — to 
Induce him. 

Hee'-hee, or he-he, n., adj., v. (J). 
(By onoma., hihi). I^aug-hter; amuse- 
ment; to lausrh; fun; a g-ame; guy; g-ig-- 
Rle; g-lee; mirth; humor; humorous; 
levity; merry; to deride; ridicule; romp; 
sport. Commonly when used as a verb 
it is preceded by mamook (which see 
below) but not always. Ex.: Mamook 
heehee, — to laugh; play; amuse; deride; 
mock: make fun; ridicule. Kahta mika 
heehee? — why do you laugh? Cultus 
heehee, — a joke; jest; laughter without 
much cause for it; an innocent game. 
Xloshe heehee, — a good game. Heehee 
house, — a house for amusement; a play 
house; a dance house. Heehee lemah, — 
to gamble. Heehee tumtum, — jolly. 
Wake heehee, — serious. 

Help, v., n. (Engrllsh,-idem). As a 
verb it is commonly preceded by ma- 
mook, but rot always. Help; aid; as- 
sistance; reUef; to help; aid; assist; re- 

lieve. Ex.: Mamook help, — to aid; as- 
sist; relieve; enable. Potlatch help, — 
console; help; accommodate; uphold. 

Hias, — great. See Hyas. Hiyu, — 
much. See Hyiu. 

Hooehooe, — seeHuyhuy. 

Hool-hool, n. (C). (Chiuookj-Kholkhol; 
Klikatat,-Khoilkhoil). A mouse. (Hyas 
hoolhool (big mouse), a rat.) (The word 
is obsolete now.) 

House, n. (E). A house; home; resi- 
dence; building*; cottag^e; den. Example: 
Mahkook house, — a store; Boston house, 
— an American-built house, as distin- 
guished from a lodge. Mahkook house 
(trading house), shop. Muckamuck 
house, — a restaurant; tavern; hotel. 
Skookum house, — a prison; jail; peni- 
tentiary. Siwash house, — a lodge; an 
Indian house. Sail house kopa snass, — 
an umbrella. Fapeh house, — a post 
office. Tyee kopa papeh house, — a post- 

Hul-lel, v. (C). (Chin.ook,-idem). To 
tremble; to shake. Used with the verb 
mamook, as, — ^Mamook huUel, it be- 
comes active. 

Hul-o'-i-ma, n., adj. (C). (Chinook,- 
S'hulloyiba). Other; another; different; 
difference; averse; diverse; eccentric; 
foreign; odd; separate; strangle; cLueer; 
unusual. Example: Huloima tilikum, — 
a different tribe or people. Hyas htQoi- 
ma, — very different; mystery. Yaka la- 
laug" huloima kopa nesika lalang, — his 
language is different from our language. 
Klatawa kopa huloima illahee, — to emi- 
grate. Kopa huloima, — alibi. Huloima 
tumtum, — dissent; a different mind. 
Huloima wawa, — a different language; or 
forign language; to mispronounce. 

Humm, n., v., adj. (J). An invented 
word. Bad odor; a stink or smell; to 
stink; a bad smell; scent; stench; filthy; 
putrid; an odor. Ex.: Humm opoots, — 
(stinking tail) — a skunk. Yaika humjn, 
— it smells, bad. Kloshe humm,, — a 
pleasant smell. Hyas humm, — dirty; a 
very bad smell, Mamook hujum, — to 
scent; to smell. 

Huy-huy, n., v. (J). (Canadian 
Prench,-Hui-hui). A bargtiiu or ex- 
chang-e; to barf^r or trade. Example: 
Huyhuy la sell, — change the saddle. 
Huyhuy tumtum, — to change one's 
mind. (Mr. Anderson says this is a 
cant word of the Canadians, signifying 
a hasty exchange.) Its origin has been 
sne^gested in oui oui, yes yes. Example: 
Nika tikeg-h huyhuy kiuitan,— I wish to 
trade horses. Mamook huyhuy, — to 
change; to trade. (Imp., change.) (Huy- 
huy is also spelled, — hoehoe, hoeyhoey, 
hooehoo, hooehooe, huihui, oihoi, huehu.) 

Hy-ak', adv., also used as imperative. 
(C). (Chlnook,-Ai-ak). Swift; fa^t; 
quickly; hurry; make haste; hasten; 
prompt; sudden; suddenly; speed; quick; 
quickly. Ex.: Kyak yaka chako, — he 




came quickly. Hyak diako, — Imp. come 
quick. Halo or Wake liyak, — slow; mod- 
erate; slowly. (Other ways of spelling 
Hyak, — aiak; hiack; hyack; liyuc; lake; 

Hy-as', adj., adv. (N). (Probably cor- 
rupted from the following, — Hyiu.) 
Large; great; very; the general term for 
size; wide; big; arduous; vast; cele- 
brated. Example: Hyas tyee, — a great 
chief. Hyas mahcook, — a great price; 
dear. Hyas klosbe, — very good. Okoke 
house yaka hyas, — that house is large. 
Nika hyas tikegh klatawa, — I very much 
wish to go. Hyas ahnkuttie, — ancient; 
anciently; a very long time ago; longer, 
if a long, strong accent is placed on the 
last syllable of hyas, and first of ahn- 
kuttie. Hyas kloshe time, — a very good 
time; a festival. Kunsih hyas, — how 
large? what size? Hyas tenas, — very 
small; very short. Hyas Sunday, — 
Christmas; Fourth of July; Thanksgiv- 
ing. (Other spellings: Aias; aiaz; haias; 
bias; hlass.) 

Hy-iu', or Hi-yu, adj. (N). (Nootka,- 
lyahish) — by Jewett. (Tokwaht,-aiya). 
Jewett also gives hyo as the Nootka 
word for ten. Much; many; plenty; 
enough; abundance; plentiftil; ample; a 
pile; the sign of the plural; term of 
quantity or multitude. Example: Hyiu 
tilikum, — a crowd; many people. Hyiu 
muckamuck, — plenty to eat. Tenas hyiu, 
—several; some. Wake hyiu, — not 
many or not much; a few; seldom. 
Kopet hyiu, — enough. Hiyu times, — fre- 
quently. Hiyu wawa, — clamor; accla- 
mation; excitement; to argue; talkative. 
Hiyu tillikums kopa house, — an audi- 
ence. (Other spellings: Hieu, haiu, 
hyoo, hyu, hyue, hyyu, hui ("Winthrop, 
— probably misprint for hiu), aio, aiu, 

Ik-poo'-ie, v. (C). (Chinook,-Ikhpui). 
To shut; close; stop; cork; closed shut. 
Ex.: Ikpooie la pote, — shut the door. 
Mamook ikpooie, — to surround; to shut; 
Xkpooie kwolan, — deaf; a closed ear. 

Ikt, or Icht, adj. (C). (Chinook,-Ikht). 
One; once; a unit. Used also as the in- 
definite article, a or an. Ex.: Ikt man,— 
a man. Ikt-ikt man, — some one or other; 
here and there one. Ikt cole, — a year. 
Ikt nika klatawa kopa yahka house, — 
I have been once to his house. Ikt 
kwahta,— a quarter. Ikt tahlkie, — day 
before yesterday. Ikt tukamonuk, — one 
hundred. Ikt time ikt moon, — monthly. 
Ikt time kopa klone moon, — quarterly. 
Kopet ikt, — private; alone; singly; soli- 
tary; only one. 

Ik'-tah, or Ikta, pron. (C). (Chlnook,- 

Ikta). (Hale says, "same as kahta, 
what; why.) What. "The interrogative 
pronouns are klaska, — who? Kahta or 
Iktah, — what? and Kunsih, — how many 
or how much? The latter is also used 
for when? — i. e., how much time, how 
many days?" — Hale, Example: Iktah 
okook?— What is that? Iktah mika ti- 
kegh? — What do you want? Iktah? — 
Well, what now? Iktah mamook? — 
What's the matter? Iktah mika ma- 
mook? — What are you doing? 

Ik'-tas, or Iktahs, n. (from preceding). 
Things; garments; dress; a thing; goods; 
merchandise; clothing; utensils; bag- 
gage; attire; fabric; occasionally the 
singular Iktah is used, though not often. 
The use of the same word for what and 
for things, has been noticed in some 
other languages of this coast, "A very 
expressive word and often adopted into 
English where the Chinook is used." — 
Eells. Ex.: Kah mika iktas, — where are 
your things? Halo ikta mitlite, — there 
is nothing here. "Do not confuse iktah, 
meaning 'what,' with iktahs, meaning 
'goods, chattels, possessions, merchan- 
dise,' etc."— Buchanan. Nika hiyu iktas, 
— I have plenty of goods. 

ir-la-hee, Illihie, or lUahe, n. (C). 
(Chinook.-jlahekh). Land; country; 

earth; soil; dirt; region; district; farm; 
field; clay; shore; ranch. Example: 
Okoke illahee yaka hyas kloshe, — this 
land is very good. Boston illahee, — the 
United States. Delate yaka illahee,— na- 
tive land. King George illahee, — Eng- 
land. Pasaiooks illahee, — France. Kono- 
way akoke illahee, — the world. Kono- 
way Illahee konowah kah, — the universe. 
Dutchman yaka illahee, — Germany; near- 
ly any part of Europe except France 
and England. Saghalie Tyee yaka illa- 
hee, — Heaven. Siwash illahee,— an In- 
dian reservation. Illahee wake siah 
kopa chuck, — the coast. Kah mika illa- 
hee? — where is your land? Where do 
you live? Saghalie illahee, — Heaven. 
Keekwulee Illahee, — Hell. 

In'-a-poo, or Ee'-na-poo, n. (C)." (Chi- 
nook,-inapu). A louse. (Sopen inapoo, 
— jump-louse; a flea.) 

Inati, — see Enati. 

Ip'-soot, or Ip-sut, V. (C.) (Chinook,- 
Alhupso). To hide one's self, or any- 
thing; to keep secret; to conceal; hide; 
hid; sly; concealed. Example: Ipsoot 
klatawa, — to steal off; slip away. Ip- 
soot wawa,— to whisper. 

Is'-ick, n. (C). Chinook,-Isik.) A 
paddle; an oar (occasionally). Exam- 
ple: Mamook isick, — to paddle. Isick 
stick, — the ash, or alder, maple, or the 
elm; wood from which paddles are made. 

Is'-kum, V. (C). Chinook,-idem.) To 
take hold of; hold; get; receive; accept; 
secure; catch; recover; obtain; seize. 
Example: Iskum okook lope, — hold on 


to that rope. Mika na iskum? — did you 
get it? Iskum piah stick, — get some 
firewood. Iskttm klootcliinau, — to get 
married. Iskum kumtuks, — to learn. 
Iskum kopa tumtum,— to believe. Pot- 
latch nika, — give me. Iskuju, — take it. 
Kah mika iskum.? — where did you get it? 
Nika iskum. kopa stick, — I got it in the 

It'-lo-kum, n. (C). (Cliinook,-idem). 
(Iiower Clielialiss.-lhtlkum; Cbehalis,- 
Setlokum). The game of "hand," — a 
common amusement; a mode of gam- 
bling. Maniook itlokum, — to gamble. 

Itl'-wil-lie, Ilwmie, or Itlwille, n. (C). 
(Cliinook,-Etlwili). Meat; flesh; muscle 
(of a person or animal). Example: 
Xonaway nika itlwillie sick, — all my 
flesh is sore. Lemooto yaka itlwillie, — 
mutton. Moosmoos yaka itlwillie, — beef. 
Mowitch yaka itlwillie, — venison. Tenas 
moosmoos yaka itlwillie, — veal. . (Bee- 
ahts (Indian); Bih-atts, — flesh) — Bu- 

Its'-woot, Itch-wood, or Itshoot, n. 
(C). (Chinook,-eitshhut). A bear; a 
black bear. Example: Itswoot paseesie, 
— thick, dark cloth or blankets. 


Kah, adv. (C). (Chinook,-kakh). 
Where; whence; whither. Example: Kah 
mika klatawa? — where are you going? 
Halo kah, — nowhere. Konoway kah, — 
everywhere. Kah cole chako, — North. 
Kah sun chako, — East. Kah sun klata- 
wa, — West. Kah Bxm mitlite kopa sit- 
kum sun,— South. Kah yaka sick? — 
where is he sick? what is the matter? 
Kah mika mitlite? — where do you live? 
Kah mika illahee?— where do you live? 
where is your land? Kah mika chako, — 
whence come you? 

Kah'-kwa, adj. (MT). (Nootka, Tok 
waht,-achko.) Iiike; similar to; ecLual 
with; as; so; thus; alike; because; hence; 
inasmuch; such. Example: Kahkwa 
nika tumtum, — so I think (literally, such 
(is) my heart). Kahkwa tyee, — aristo- 
cratic. Kahkwa hyas nika, — as large as 
I. Halo kahkwa, — not like that; unlike. 
Kahkwa spose, — as if. Kloshe kahkwa, 
— that is right; (amen, good so); that 
is good; that will do. Delate kahkwa, — 
exactly the same. Kopet kahkwa, — that 
is all. Taka kahkwa, — alike. Eells says: 
"(Kahkwa is often used with other 
words, especially nouns, thus changing 
them Into adverbs, and occasionally ad- 
jectives, as in the following phrases: 
Kahkwa chikamin, — metallic. Kahkwa 
cole illahee, — wintry. Kahkwa chuck, — 
fluid; liquid. Kahkwa tillikum,— friend- 

Kahp'-ho n. (C). (Cinook,-idem.) An 
elder brother, sister, or cousin. 

Kah'-ta, adv. (C). Chinook,-Kata). 
How; why. Example: Kahta mika 
mamook okook? — why do you do that? 
Kahta mika chahko? — how did you come? 
Kahta mika? — what, is the matter with 
you? how are you? Pe kahta? — and 
why so? what for? Kahta kopa yaka? — 
how is he? 

Ka-li'-tan, n. (C). Chinook,-Tklaitan). 
an arrow; shot; a bullet. Example: 
Kalitan le sac, — a quiver; a shot-pouch. 
"An arrow, originally, but when guns 
were introduced the meaning changed to ; 

shot, and bullet, and sometimes lead." — 
Eells. /: 

Ka-lak'-a-la, Kul-lak'-a-la, Kul'-la-kul'- 
la, n. (C). (Chinook,-kalakala). A bird; 
fowl; insect; wing-. (The accent some- j 
times being on the second, and some- / 
times on the first and third syllables. — 
Eells. Note. — "The different ways in 
which some words are spelled is a 
curiosity, and simply show what educat- 
ed men will do in this line when they 
have no standard authority. Very sel- 
dom is any word, even the simplest and 
easy one, spelled in the same way, if it 
is found in several dictionaries, while 
some of them are spelled in very many 
different ways." — Eells. Other ways of 
spelling kalakala: Culacula; kallakala; 
kalahkalah; kilakila; kulakula; kuUuka- 
la; cullacuUa; cullerculler ; cuUacullah; 
kullakuUie; kullukullie; kulakulla, etc. 
An examination of many dictionaries 
will show among other words, — klonas, 
spelled in ten different ways; ahnkuttie 
and keewTilee, each in twelve; klootch- 
man and kliminawhit, each in fifteen; 
klatawa, eeahost, and mimoluse, each in 
sixteen; tahtlum, kalakala, and kilapi, 
each in eighteen; and kunjih in nineteen 
different ways; lejaub is in twelve ways, 
and ooakut in fourteen, but they show 
a wide variety of sound, lejaub being 
also dahblo, diaub, derb, leiom, and 
yaub; and ooakut being hooihut, wayhut, 
wehkut, and oyhut. Even words which 
are derived from the English generally 
have different spellings as soon as the 
standard English authority is left, so 
that glease from grease becomes gleese, 
gleece, glis, and klls; bed is also spelled 
pet; moon is also mun; nose is also nos; 
stone is also ston; stocking is also stock- 
en, staken, and stoken; sun is also son; 
Sunday is also sante; tea is also ti; 
pehpah (paper) is also papeh, paper, 
pajrpa, papah, and pepa, and peppah; 
and warm also is spelled w^aum, wam, 
wahm, and wawm. Shot, skin, man, and 
a few others have for almost a wonder 
found no other way of being spelled. 
There are three reasons for this differ- 
ence which may be made when the same 
sound of the letters is preserved, thu9 


warn may be waum or wawm and still 
preserve the same sound of a. Again, 
when any writer adopts a regular sched- 
ule of sounds for each vowel, he will 
surely differ in spelling from those who 
attempt to follow as near as possible 
the English mode of spelling. Boas, 
St. Onge, and to a considerable degree 
Durien have done this, hence tea be- 
comes ti; poolie, ptili, and so on. Still 
farther different modes of pronunciation 
in different localities, and sometimes in 
the same locality, are the cause of dif- 
ferent ways of spelling. Thip is espe- 
cially seen in the words already referred 
to, ooakut, and lejaub; so kloshe becomes 
tlush or tloos, and also a large number 
beginning with kl begin with tl in an- 
other place; taMkie becomes tahnlkie, 
and so on. Sometimes indeed it is very 
difficult to discover the true sound, as 
for instance, whether the first syllable 
of kalakala should be spelled with an 
a or u, or the last one of tukaxuonuk 
with an a or u, and so on. The mode of 
pronunciation, and hence the mode of 
spelling, has undoubtedly changed some- 
what since Parker In 1835-6 wrote the 
first vocabulary. Hence in comparing 
the ways of spelling the reader ought to 
remember the place where, the date 
when, and the system of pronunciation, 
especially of vowel sounds adopted by 
each writer." — Eells. 

"As will be seen, the orthography of the 
Jargon is unsettled and capricious. Most 
writers spell Indian and French words 
'by the ear,' but use the ordinary English 
spelling for the English words comprised 
in the language, without regard to uni- 
formity. .. .Some writers, however, re- 
tain in the Jargon the 'digraph' srlx, to 
express, in some words of Chinook ori- 
gin, the sound of the German guttural ch 
in Buch." — Hale. "As the Jargon is to 
be spoken by Englishmen and French- 
men, and by Indians of at least a dozen 
tribes, so as to be alike easy and intel- 
ligible to all, it must admit no sound 
which cannot be readily pronounced by 
all. The numerous harsh Indian gut- 
turals either disappear entirely, or are 
softened to li and k, (see note above). 
On the other hand, the d, f, g, r, v, z, 
of the English and French become in 
the mouth of a Chinook, t, p, k, 1, w, and 
8. The English j, (dzh), is changed to 
ch, (tsh). The French nasal n, is drop- 
ped, or is retained without its nasal 
sound. In writing the Indian words, 
the gutturals are expressed by gh. (or 
kh) and q, and the vowels have their 
Italian sound." — Hale. 

Kam'-ass, or Iia'-kam-ass, n. (N). The 
Scilla Esculenta, — a bulbous root used 
for food by the Indians, sometimes called 
Siwash onion. (Jewitt gives 'Chamass" 
as the Nootka for fruit, also for sweet, 
or pleasant to the taste.) (Itacamass Is 

the name of a place in Clarke County, 
Wash.) (A few otlier ways of spelling 
kamass: .Camas, kamas, lakamas, lak- 
ammas, camash, kanxaas, lackamas. 
"Cammassa esculenta, or la cammass, 
(as the French call it)."— Swan. 

Ka'm-ooks, n. (C). (Chinook.-Klka- 
bokes). A dog-. Kahkwa kamooks,— like 
a dog; beastly. 

Eap-swal-la, or Kap-su-al-la, v. n. 
(Quaere u. d.) To steal; rob; a theft. 
Example: Kapswalla klatawa,— to steal 
away. Kapswalla mamook, — to do se- 
cretly. Wake kloshe mika kapswalla,— 
(not good you steal) Thou shalt not 
steal. Halo kumtuks kapswalla, or wake 
kapswalla, — to be honest. "Kapshwala, 
before wawa means to speak ill; with 
tlatoa (klatawa) it means to run away; 
with musom, to commit adultery." — St. 

Ka't-suk, or Ko't-suk, n. (C). (Chi- 
nook,-idem). The middle or centre of 

Kau'-py, n. (E). Coffee. 

Kee'-kwu-lee, or Kee'-kwll-lie, prep. 
(C). (Chinook,-Kik'hwili). Low; below; 
under; beneath; down; inward. Example: 
Mamook keekwillie, — to lower. Mitlite 
keekwilUe,— to set down; put under. (Not 
used in the sense of "down stream.") 
Elip keekwulee, — lower. Elip keekwulee 
kopa konoway, — lowest. Klatawa keek- 
wulee kopa chuck, — to dive. Mahish keek- 
wulee kopa illahee, — to bury. 

KU'-a-pi, or Kel'-a-pi, or Ka-la-pi, v. 
(C). (Chinook.-Kelapai). To turn; re- 
turn; overturn; upset; reverse; retreat; 
capsize. Example: Kilapi canim, — to 
upset a canoe. Hyak kilapi, — come back 
quickly. Kilapi kopa house, — go back 
to the house. Mika kilapi alta, — have 
you returned now? Mamook kilapi, — to 
bring, send, or carry back. Kilapi doUa, 
— to pay; repay. Kilapi tujntum, — to 
change one's mind. (A few ways of 
spelling kilapi: Kelapie; keelapi; keela- 
pie; keelapy; kilapie; kilapai; killapie; 
kilapy; kilipie; killipie; kyelapai; kilaps; 
klips; etc.) 

Kim'-ta, or Kim-tah, prep. (C). (Chi- 
nook,-Kimta). Behind; after; after- 
wards; last; since; back; rear; subse- 
CLuent; young-er. Example: Klatawa 
kimtah, — go behind; to follow. Delate 
kimta, — last. Nika elip, pe yakka kim- 
tah, — I first, and he afterwards. Okook 
kimtah, — the one behind. Kimta ow, — a 
younger brother. Kimtah nika nannitsh 
mika, — since I saw you. Kimtah sitkum 
sun, — afternoon. Kimta kloshe, — worse. 

King" Chautsh, or King" Georg-e, King- 
Gawg-e, adj. (E). (Eng'lish,-King George). 
Eng-lish. King" chautshman, — an Eng- 

Kish-kish, v. (C). (Chinook,-idem). To 
drive, as cattle or horses. Ex.: Mamook 
kishkish, — to drive, or impel, but often 
used as Imperitive, — as, Yaka kishkish 



nlka, — he drove me away. Mamook kish- 
kisli okoke moosmoos, — drive away that 

Klu'-a-tan, or Xtataa, n. (C). (Cliinook, 
-ikiuatan). A horse. Ex.: Klatawa 
kopa kuitan, — to ride. Yaka liyas kloshe 
kuitan? — Is that a very good horse? 
Cooley kuitan, — a race horse. Ston© kui- 
tan, a stallion. 

Klah, adj., v. (C). (Cliinook,-Klakh). 
Free or clear from; in sigrht; to escape. 
Example: Chee yakka klab, — now he is 
in sight. Klatawa klah, — to escape, as 
a prisoner. Chahko klah (of seed), — to 
come up; (of the woods), — to open out; 
(of the weather), — to clear up. Mamook 
klah, — to uncover. (Mr. Anderson gives 
as the original meaning, — to open out or 

Ela'-ha-nie, or Klali-hanie, or Xlagfh- 
anie, adv. (C). (Cliinook,-Klakhani). Out 
of doors; out; without; outside; exterior. 
Example: Mamook klahanie okook, — put 
that out. Chako klahanie, — to emerge; 
get out; to be delivered. Klatawa kla- 
hanie, — to go out. Mahsh klahanie, — to 
throw out; deliver; eject. Klahanie kopa 
house,— out doors. 

Kla-ho'w-ya, adv. (C). The ordinary 
salutation at meeting- or parting*. How 
do you do? good evening; good day; 
good morning; good-bye; as, Klahowya 
sikhs, — good day, friend. Kahta mika,— 
how are you? Kah mika house? — where 
is your house? Kah mika chako? — 
whence come you? Kah mika klatawa? 
■ — where are going? Mika na kumtuks 
alki snass? — do you think it will rain? 
Halo, -no. Nawitka, — yes. Klahowya, — 
good-bye. Mahsie, — thanks. 

Kla-ho'w-yum, adj., n. (C). (Chinook,- 
Klahauia). Poor; miserable; wretched; 
oompannion; distress. Example: Hyas 
klahowyum nika, — I am very poor. Ma- 
mook klahowyum, — to take pity on; give 
alms; be generous. Also to impoverish; 
make poor, (the sense in which it is 
used depends on the connection and cir- 
cumstances). "The salutation above giv- 
en probably originated in some whining 
reply to the first whites, and a distinc- 
tion has since arisen between the two 
modes of spelling, which is, however, 
purely arbitrary." — Gibbs. Eells says: 
"Gibbs, Gill, Hibben, Tate, and Swan give 
Klahowoya as the word for salutation, 
and Klahowyum for poor, but I have 
never been able to see any difference In 
the Willamette Valley in 1850 and after- 
wards, we always used Klahowyum for 
both, and I never heard Klahowya. On 
Puget Sound for about twenty years we 
have used Klahowya for both; and I 
have seldo-m heard Klahowyum." (A few 
other ways of spellincr Klahowya and 
Klahowyum: Clahoyma; klahaiyam; kla- 
haiiam; klahowyah; klahowyou; klah- 
ya; klahyam; klahyeam; klahyeyah; 
thlacoca; tlaquaya; klahum; klahiyon, — 

and so on in many other ways.) 

Klah-wa, adv. (C). (Chinook,-kla- 
wakh). Slow; slowly; tardy. Ex.: Klat- 
wa klahwa, — go slowly. Yaka chako 
klahwa, — he comes slowly. 

Klak, adv. (C). (Chlnook.-klakw). 
Off; out; away; (to take) off. 

Klak'-sta, or Klui'-sta, pron. (C). 
(Chinook,-t'kluksta). Who; whose; 

which; which one; any. Ex.: Klaksta 
yahwa? — who is there? Halo klaksta, — 
no one; none; not any; nobody. Klaksta 
mamook okoke, — who made or did that? 
Ikt man, klonas klaksta, — somebody. 
Konoway klaksta, — everyone. 

Klale, or T'klale, adj. (C). (Chinook,- 
Tlehl). Black, or dark hlue, or green; 
brown; ig-norant. Example: Okoke pasee- 
sie yaka klale,— that blanket is black. 
Klale nika tumtum, — my mind is igno- 
rant. Sitkum-klale, — brown. Wake siah 
klale, — purple. Klale chuck kopa ma- 
mook tzum, — ink. 

Klap, V. (C). (Chinook,-Klap). To 
find; arrive. Example: Mika na klap 
mika kiuatan? — did you find your horse? 
Nika klap Seattle kopa polaklie, — I ar- 
rived at Seattle at night. Klap tenas, — 
to be with child. Klap tujntum, — to de- 
cide; to recollect; remember. Klap wa- 
wa, — to learn a language. 

Klas'-ka, or Klus'-ka, pron. (C). (Chi- 
nook.-Kluska.) Anything pertaining" to 
the third person, plural number; they; 
thine; them; their; theirs. Example: 
Klaska klatawa kopa Clallam illahee, — ■ 
they went to the Clallam land. Nika 
nanitsh klaska, — I see them. Okoke 
klaska ilahee, — this is their land. 

Klat'-a-wa, v. (N). (Nootka,-Klattur- 
wah.) (Jewitt.) (Nittinat,-Klatoukh.) 
To g-o; travel; attend; flow; mi?rate; 
start; tread; leave; begone; get out; de- 
part. Example: Klatawa teahwit, — to 
walk; go on foot. Yata klatawa kopa 
Tacoma, — he went to Tacoma, Klatawa 
kopa kiuatan, — to ride. Ghee klatawa, 
— to start. Klatawa kopa boat, — to sail; 
to go in a boat. Mamook klatawa,— to 
send. (A few of the numerous ways 
of spelling Klatawa: Clatawah; clatta- 
wah; claterwar; clatterwar; clattarwar; 
clatawar; clatua; clatuwa; klatawah; 
klatoa; klatwa; tlatoa; tlatowa; and 

Klim-in'-awhit, n., v. (C). (Chinook,- 
Kliminawhut.) A lie; to lie; falsehood; 
untrue. Example: Hyas ktimtuks 
kliminawhit, — he is a great liar (liter- 
ally, he knows well how to lie). Yaka 
kwanesum kliminawhit, — he always lies. 
(Also spelled: Klimlnacut; kliminwhit; 
kliminkwhit; klimlnawit; klaminawit; 
klaminawhit; clementikote ; tlemena- 
whit; tleminwhit; kliminwit; and oth- 
ers. "> 

Kllm'-min, adj. (C). (Chinook,-Tkle- 
min-tklemin.) Soft; fine in substance; 
not hard; fine; little. (The reduplica- 



tion denotes the diminutive, but in Jar- 
gon it is generally used singly.) Ex- 
ample: Klimmin sapolell, — flour. Chako 
klimmln.— to melt; become soft. Klim- 
min illaMe, — mud; marshy ground. 
Wake klimjnin, or halo klimnnin, — hard. 
Mamook klimmin, — to soften as by 
dressing a skin. 

Klip, adj. (C). (CWnook.-Kelipe Chi- 
halis,-Kluptutl; Ni8<iually,-Kiep. ) Deep; 
sunken; to sink. Example: Klip chuck, 
— deep water. Klip sun, — sunset, 

Klis'-kwiss, n. (C). (Cliinook,-idem.) 
A mat, (made of the cattail rush.) Ex- 
ample: Kliskwiss yaka kloshe kopa 
bed,— the mat is good for a bed. 

Klo-nas, adv. (C). Cliinook,-idem.) 
(Expression of uncertainty or doubt.) 
Perhaps; I don't know; may be so; who 
knows? it is doubtful; misfht; may. 
Equivalent to the Spanisli quien sabe. 
"The potential mode is indicated by the 
word, klonas." — Eells. Example: Klo- 
nass nika klatawa, — perhaps I shall go. 
Kah mika kahpho? — where is your 
brother? Klonass,--! don't know. Mika 
tumtum hiyu snass okoke sun? — do you 
think it will rain much today? Klonas, 
— I do not know. Klonas yaka chako 
tomoUo, — perhaps he will come tomor- 
row. (Other ways of spelling Klonas: 
Klonass; clonas; clunas; kloneas; kloo- 
naz; tlonas; thlunass, etc.) 

Klone, adj. (C). (Chinook,-Tklon.) 
Three. (Other spellings: None; clone; 
cloak; kloon; thlune; tlon, etc.) 

Kloshe, or Klosh, adj., adv. (N). 
(Nootka, Tokwaht.-klohtl; Makah,-klot- 
elo, or klotello; Cloosh,-(Meares) ; Nis- 
q.ually,-klob.) A very expressive word; 
has 45 meanings.) Good; well; well 
enoug-h; affable; amiable; apt; auspi- 
cious; beautiful; beloved; beneficial; con- 
venient; efficient; elegant; even; fair; 
fine; fortunate; f rag-rant; g^ay; g-raceful; 
hospitable; meek; intimate; kind; mild; 
modest; moral; neat; nice; pleasant; 
plain; please; practical; pretty; rig-ht; 
reliable; safe; respectable; secure; still; 
smooth; splendid; useful; upright; vir- 
tuous; untarnished. Ex.: Kloshe nan- 
nitsh, — look out; take care; guard; de- 
fend; nurse; watch; provide. Delate hy- 
as kloshe, — magnificent. Elip kloshe, — 
better; superior. Hyas kloshe, — very 
well; very good; grand; superb. Elip 
kloshe kopa konoway, — best; supreme. 
Slamook kloshe, — adorn; appease; ar- 
range; behave; cure; fix; decorate; pre- 
pare; repair. Mitlite kloshe tumtum, — 
to congratulate; enjoy; be contented. 
Wake kloshe, — unkind; not good; unfa- 
vorable; wrong; nasty; naughty. Wake 
kloshe kopa mahkook, — unsalable. 
Kloshe kopa mahkook, — merchantable. 
Kloshe kopa nika, — I am satisfied. 
Kloshe kopa cultus potlatch, — generous; 
good about giving; liberal. Kloshe ko- 
pet, — be still. Kloshe mitlite, — hold on; 

remain. Kloshe tumtum, — love; delight: 
happy; favor; cordial; friendly. Kloshe 
chako, — all right; come on. Kloshe kah- 
kwa, — well; enough; all right; amen. 
Kloshe tumtum mika chako,— an invita- 
tion; a welcome. (Other ways of spell- 
ing Kloshe: Close; closche; clouch; 
klosche; klose; kloosh; tloos; tlosh; 
tlush;; cloosh, and others.) 

Kloshe-spose, adv. (N. and E.). (Noot- 
ka,-klohtl; Eng-lish.-.suppose.) Shall or 
may I; let me; g-ood if. Example; 
Kloshe-spose nika mamook pia okook?— 
shall I cook that? (literally, (is it) good 
that I may cook that?) .Kloshe-spose 
nika klatawa? — shall I go? 

Klootch-man, n. (N). (Nootka and Tok- 
waht,-Klutsma.) A woman; madam; 
wife; mistress; a lady; a female of any 
animal. Example: Kah mika klootch- 
man? — where is your wife? .Tenas 
klootchman, — a girl; virgin; maiden; 
daughter; lass; used generally with ref- 
erence to all girls and women who are 
not married, and sometimes with refer- 
ence to young married women. Klootch- 
man kiuatan, — a mare. Tans yaka tenas 
klootchman, — a granddaughter. Klootch- 
man yaka ats, — a sister-in-law. Klootch- 
man yaka mama, — a mother-in-law. 
Klootchman yaka ow, — a brother-in-law. 
Klootchman yaka papa, — a father-in- 
law. (A few other ways in which the 
word is spelled: Cloocheman; clooche- 
min; clootchman; cloachman; clotshe- 
man; kloochman; kleutchman; tlatche- 
man; tluchmen; klouchman, etc.) 

Ko, V. (C). (Chinook,-idem.) To reach; 
arrive at. Example: Chee klaska ko, — 
they have just come. Kansih nesika ko 
kopa Nisqually? —when shall we reach 
Nisqually? Tahlkie sun nika ko kopa 
Olympia,— yesterday I arrived at Olym- 

Kok'-shut, v. (N). (Nootka,-Kakh- 
shetl; Kloakwat,-Kwachitl.) (In the 
original dead.) To break; broken; to 
beat; hit; bruise; burst; cleave; hurt; 
demolished; knock; rap; tear; torn; 
kick; slap; shatter; split; bruised; a 
break. Eells says: "Often mamook is 
used with it to make it an active verb; 
and chako, a verb in the passive voice, — • 
but not always. Thus, — Nika kokshut 
yaka, and Nika mamook kokshut yaka, — 
I hit him, -would both be proper. So, 
Nika kokshut, and Chako kokshut, — I am 
hurt, would also both be proper." Ex- 
ample: Hyas kokshut, — much broken. 
Hyiu kokshut, — all broken to pieces. 
Chako kokshut, — broken; split; bruised; 
passive of kokshut. Mamook kokshut, — 
to beat; bruise; see above kokshut. 

Kon'-a-way, adj. (C). (Chinook,-Kan- 
awe.) All; every; total; universal; agf- 
greg-ate; entire; the sum; the whole. Ex- 
ample: Klaska konaway klatawa, — they 
have all gone. Konaway tilikum, -ev- 
erybody; mankind. Konaway ikta, — 



everything. Konaway kali, — every- 

where. Konaway sun, — every day. 

Ko'-pa, adv., prep., conj. (C). (Clii- 
nook,-idem; formerly, Kwapa,-Hale. ) 
The principal preposition in the lan- 
guage. At; according to; around; about; 
concerning; to; into; with; towards; of; 
there; in that place; than; for; from; 
on; during; through; instead of. Lei Is 
says: "There are nine words and three 
phrases which are used as prepositions. 
The principal words are kopa saghalie, 
over; keekwulee, under; and kunamokst, 
with; kopa is, however, used more than 
all the others, as it has a great variety 
of meanings, which can only be known 
by the connection, some of which are 
entirely opposite to each other, as, from 
and to; for example, — yaka chako kopa 
saghalie, means, he came from heaven; 
but, — yaka klatawa kopa saghalie, 
means he went to heaven. Alta nika 
potlatch wawa kopa mesika kopa okoke 
papah, means, now I will talk to you 
about this picture. Yaka mitlite kopa 
chuck, — he is on the water; yaka mitlite 
kopa river, — he is at the river; yaka 
klatawa kopa stick, — he has gone into 
the woods; kopa ikt moon yaka mitlite 
yukwa, — during one month he will stay 
here; kopa yaka wawa John yaka mimo- 
luse, — according to his story John is 
dead. .Saghalie kopa mountain, — on top 
of the mountain; Jesus yaka mimoluse 
kopa nesika, — Christ died for or instead 
of us. The word is also used as an ad- 
verb and conjunction. Kopa is often 
prefixed to a noun to show that it is in 
the possessive case, as okoke kiutan 
kopa John, — this horse is John's, — (lit- 
erally — this horse to john, — i. e., belongs 
to John.") Ex.: Yaka kamooks mitlite 
kopa, — his dogs are there. When thus 
used as an adverb, the accent is on the 
last syllable which is prolonged. Nika 
kiutan elip kloshe kopa yaka kiutan,^ 
my horse is better than his horse. Kopa 
nlka house, — at my house. Iiolo okoke 
kopa mika, — take that home with you; 
equivalent to the French chez vous. Cul- 
tus kopa nika, — it is nothing to me. 
Kah okoke lope? — where is that rope? 
(motioning with the chin towards the 
place) — Kopa. Kopa mika, — your; yours. 
Kopa mesika, — your; yours. Kopa nika, 
— my; mine. Kopa nesika, — ours. Kopa 
klaska, — theirs. Kopa yaka, — his; her; 
hers; its. Kopa l>ed, — abed; in bed. Kopa 
boat, or ship,— aboard; on the boat or 
ship. Kopa kiutan, — horseback; on the 
horse. Kopa konoway, — common; for all. 
Kopa hiQoima,— alibi: elsewhere. 

Ko-p'et, v.. adj. (C). (Chinook,-idem.) 
To stop; leave off; enough; only; alone; 
forbear; quit; simply; submit; abdicate; 
abrogate; cease; except. Ex.: Kopet wa- 
wa,— stop talking. Kopet hiyu, — enough. 
Kloshe kopet,— be still. Kopet ikt, — 
lonely; alone; only one. Kopet okoke, — 

that's all. Kopet kumtuks, — to forget. 
Kopet nika mitlite, — I alone remain. 
Wake siah kopet, — nearly finished. Ma- 
mook kopet, — to finish; fulfill; quench; 
quell; stop; annul; complete; conclude; 
check. Kopet tomolla, — day after to- 
morrow. Kopet cooley, — to halt. Kopet 
kopa school, — to graduate. Konoway 
klatawa kopet yaka, — all went except 
him. Halo kopet, or wake yaka kopet,^ 
incomplete; unfinished. Wawa kloshe 
kopet, — to forbid. "Kopet, before things 
which can be weighed or counted, must 
be accompanied by, aiu (hiyu). Ex.: 
Kopet aiu mitlait (mitlite), — there is 
enough." — St. Onge. 

Kow, V. (C). (Chinook,-kaw-kaw.) To 
tie; to fasten; to be fastened. Ex.: Kow 
mika kiuatan, — tie your horse. Mika 
mamook kow mika kiuatan? — have you 
tied your horse? Nawitka, yaka kow, — - 
yes he is tied. Ikt kow, — a bundle; a 
package; parcel; pack. Marsh kow, — un- 
tie; unfasten; release; unbind. Mamook 
kow, — to tie; hitch; arrest; shackle. 

Kuitan — See Kiuatan. 

KuU, adj. (C). (Chinook.-K'hul-k'hul). 
Hard in substance; difficult; tough; solid. 
Example: Chahko kull, — to become hard. 
Halo kull, or wake kull, — tender; soft; 
easy. Mamook kull, — to harden; to cause 
to become hard. Hyas kull spose ma- 
mook, — it is very hard to do so. Kull 
stick, — oak or any hard wood, 

Kul-lagh'-an, or KiQlah, n. (S). (Chi- 
halis.-KuUakh; Iiummi,-Kullukhan). A 
fence; a corral, or inclosure; pen, a rail. 
Example: Kullagh stick, — fence rails. 
(In the original, it meant the stockade 
with which Indian houses are often sur- 
rounded.) Nika tikegh mamook ooahut 
kah mika kuUaghan mitlite, — I wish to 
make a road where your fence is. 

Kultus, see Cultus. 

Kum'-tuks, or kum'-tux, v. n. (N). 
(Nootka,-Kommetak ; Tokwaht,-Kumi- 
tuks; Clayoctuot.-Kemitak). To know; 
understand; be acquainted with; learn; 
perceive; ascertain; recognize; imaofine; 
believe; to be wise; knowing; knowledge; 
wisdom; sense. Example: Nika kum- 
tuks yaka, — I know him. Nika kumtuks 
okoke, — I understand it. Yaka mitlite 
hiyu ktimtuks, — he has much knowledge. 
Delate kumtuks, — to prove; to be sure; 
to be expert. Halo delate kumtuks, — to 
be in doubt; uncertain; obscurity. Halo 
kumtuks, — to misunderstand; not to 
know; unacquainted; unawares; unintel- 
ligible. Halo kumtuks kopa okoke 
mamook, — incompetent. Iskum kumtuks, 
— to learn; to get knowledge. Kopet 
kumtuks, — to forget. (Mamook kum- 
tuks, — see mamook.) Tikegh kumtuks, 
- — to enquire; wish to know. Kumtuks 
hiyu lalang, — a linguist. Kumtuks kopa 
siwash, or tillikums, — ethnology. Kum- 
tuks mamook, — skill; competent; prac- 



tical. Kutntuks papeh, — to read. Eum- 
tuks wawa, — an orator; eloquent. ("Kum- 
tux," name given to Edward Clayson, 
Sr., editor Patriarch, by newspaper men) 
"Cnmtux." (Other spellings: Gomtak; 
cumetax; cumtux; kametaks; komtax; 
konitoks; kumtax, etc.) 

Kuu'-a-mokst, or Xun'-a-moxt, adj. 
prep. (C). (Cliinook,-konaway mokst; 
literally, all two). Both; togrether; with; 
amid; among*; beside; besides. Example: 
Kunam.oxt kabkwa, — both alike. Nesika 
klatawa kunamokst, — we will go togeth- 
er. Nika mitlite kunamokst yaka, — I live 
with him. Cbako kunamokst, — to join; 
unite; meet; assemble; congregate; con- 
vene Tumtum kunamokst, — to agree. 
"Wawa kunamokst, — to consult. 

Kun'-jib, or kun'-sib, adv. (C). (Cbi- 
nook,-kunseukh). How many; wben: 
ever. Example: Kunsib tilikum mitlite? 
■ — how many people are there? Kunsib 
mika klatawa? — when do you go? Wake 
kunsib, — never. Mamook kunsib, — to 
count. Kunjib laley mika klatawa? — 
how long before you will go? Kunjib 
doUa, — what price? v;hat cost? Kunjib 
byas, — how large? what size? Kunjib 
laley, — how long? Kunjib slab, — how 
far? distance. Kunjib tintin,— what 
time? Kunjib biyu, — how much? Kunjib 
mika chako? — when did you come? (This 
word is spelled in many different ways, 
as Cansu; kansib, kiassee, konse, konsick, 
kunjie, kunjik, kunjuk, kunsjake, kunsig-, 
kunsic, konsiab, kunjib, kunji, etc.) — 

Kwab'-ne-sum, -or Kw'an-e-sum, adv. 
(C). (Cbinook,-Kwanisum; Yakima, - 
Kwalisim.) Always; forever; eternal; 
continual; everlastinsr; perpetual; un- 
ceasing-. Example: Okoke steamer yaka 
kwanesum klatawa, — that steamer is al- 
ways going. Kabkwa kwanesum, — as 
usual. Kwanesum mitlite, — permanent; 
to keep. 

Kwabtab, n. (E). Tbe quarter of a 
dollar. The quarter of any number is 
usually expressed in Jargon by tenas 
sitkum,— a small half. 

Kwaist, or Kweest, adj. (C). (Cbi- 
nook,-Kwaitst.) Nine. Example: Tabt- 
lum pe kweest, — nineteen. (Eells says: 
"(Western Wash.) — Though not much 
used there for they generally either say, 
— kwinnum pe lakit, — 5 and 4, or nine.") 
Kweest tabtlum, — 90. Kweest tukamo- 
nuk,— 900. Kweest thousand, — 9,000. 

Kwann, adj. (C). (Cbinook,-Kwan- 
kwan.) Glad. (According to Mr. Ander- 
son, it means a custom or habit. Mc- 
Cormick says: "It is used by some in 
this sense as tamed or broken, as of a 
horse." Kwal is Nisqually for tame. (St. 
Onge says it means tame; gentle; quiet; 

Kwass, n., adj., v. {C>. (Chinook,- 
idem.) Fear; to be afraid; tame; shy; 


Kw'in'-num, adj. (C). (Chinook,-Kwe- 
nem.) Pive. Example: Tabtlum pe 
kwinnum,— fifteen. Kwinnum tabtlum, 
— 50. Kwinnujn tukamonuk, — .500. 

Kwo-lann, Kwolan or Kwo-lab'-lie, n. 
(S). (Cbibalis,-Kwolan; Nisciually,-Kwi- 
lani.) The ear. Example: Kumtuks 
kopa kwolan, — to hear. Halo kwolann, 
or. ikpooie kwolann, — deaf. "Kwolad, — 
the ear. Kwuh-lah-doe, the Indian word 
Koulahdi is more commonly used." — Bu- 

Iia-boos, or 3^apusb, n. (F). (Frencb,- 
Ea Bouche.) Tbe mouth; mouth of a 
river. Moxt laboos, — the forks of a 
river. Klosbe kopa lapusb, — to relish. 

Iia-ca-set, n. (F). (Frencb,-La Cas- 
ette.) A box, trunk, or chest. 

Iia-clo-a, n. (F). (French,-La Croix.) 
A Cross. 

Iia-g-ome, n. (F). (French,-Lra Gomme.) 
Pitch; glue. Iia g-ommo stick, — light- 
wood; the pitchpine. 

Zia-bal, see Slahal. 

Iia-basb', n. (F). (French,-La hache.) 
An axe or hatchet. 

Iiabb, n. (French,-L.'herbe). Tbe Ar- 
butus uva ursi, the leaves of which are 
used in smoking, alone or mixed with 

Iia-kam-mas, see Kamass. 

Iiak'it, or Iiok'-it, adj. (C). (Chinook,- 
Lakt.) Pour; four times. Iiakit tabt- 
Ivnn, — forty. Tabtlum pe lakit, — four- 
teen. Iiakit tukamontik, — 400. 

Ija-labm,', or IJa-lum', n. (F). (Prench,- 
La rame.) An oar. Mamook lalahm, — 
to row. 

Iia-lang', n. (P). (Prench,-La langue.) 
The tong'ue; a lang'uag'e; dialect; tribe. 
Example: Nika lalang* huloima kopa 
yaka lalang-, — my language is different 
from his. 

La'-ly, n. (C). (Cbinook,-lele.) Time; 
a long- time. "Intensity of meaning or 
duration of time may also be indicated 
by prolongation of the sounding of a 
word, thus: laly (time), la-a-a-aly (a 
long time. This is based upon an in- 
stinctive principle common to all ton- 
gues, just as we in English phonetically 
indicate prolongation of time or exten- 
sion in space or intensity of feeling by 
means of the intonation." — Buchanan. 
Ex.: Tenas laly or wake laly, — a short 
time; an interval. Kunjib laly, — how 
long. Tenas laly kimtab, — a little while 
after. Tenas laly elip,— a little while 
before. Kunjih laly mika mitlite yahk- 
wa? — how long have you lived here? 

Iia-messe, n. (F). (Prencb,-idem.) Tbe 
ceremony of the mass. Ex.: Mamook 



lamestfe, — to say mass. 

Iia-mes-tiu, or ^a-met-Bln, n. (F). 
(Prenchi-La medecine.) Medicine, (not 
including* mag-ic); druar; ointment; pana- 
cea; pill; physic. Example: Halo mika 
tikeg-h. lametsin? — do you not want med- 
icine? Ziametsin tupso,— an herb. 

Ziam'-mi-eli, Xiummieh or Iiam-mi-i, n. 
(P). (Prencli,-La vieille.) An old wom- 
an. Xlzample: Eopet ikt lummieh mit- 
lite, — only one old woman remains. 

Iia-mon-ti, or I^a-mo-ti, n. (P). 
(Prencli,-La montalgne). A mountain. 

I^a pea or Le pee, (see leepee.) 

Iia-peep', n, (P). (Pr8nch,-La pipe.) 
A to1)acco-pipe. Iiapeep kuUakala (lit- 
erally, the "pipe-bird"), tlie band-tailed 
easrle, as its feathers were used to or- 
nament the pipe stems. 

Iia-pel-lah', v. (Quaere if from the 
Prencli,-Le foyer.) Mamook lapellah, — 
to roast before the fire. 

Zia-plas'li, n. (P). (Prencli,-La 
planche.) A board; lumber; plank. Ex- 
ample: Kali mika iskum okoke laplash, 
— where did you get that lumber? Cultus 
laplash, — slabs; refuse lumber. H^aplash 
man, a carpenter; a builder. 

Ika-pome, n. (P). (Prench,-La pomme.) 
An apple. (The word apple is now used 
on Puget Sound.) 

Iia-pote, n. (P). (Prench,-La porte.) 
A door. 

Iia-puBh, see laboos. 

Iia-tet', n. (P). (Pronounce as though 
"lah-tayt.") (Prench,-La tete.) The 
head; poll; brains; intellect; sense. Ex- 
ample: Pil latet,— red-headed. Nika 
sick kopa nika latet, — I am sick in my 
head. Halo latet,— stupid. Huloima la- 
tet, — delirious. Kopa latet,— mental. 
Tupso kopa latet, —hair. 

Law, n. (En?lish,-idem). A law; com- 
mand; decree; rule; mandate; statutes. 
Ex.: Taka kumtuks Boston law, —he 
understands American law. Delate kopa 
law, — legal, legitimate, or kloshe kopa 
law. Wake kloshe kopa law,— illegal; 

Zia-wen', n. (P). (Prench,-L'avoine. ) 

te-bal', n. (P). (Prench,-idem.) A ball; 
bullet. Tenas lebal, — shot. 

Le-Jaub. n. (P). (Prench.-Diable.) The 
devil; satan; a demon. Example: Spose 
mika mamook mesachie, lejaub iskum 
mika, — if you do wrong, the devil will 
get you. lejaub yaVa illahee, — hell. 
(Other spellings: Dahblo; diaub; deaub; 
derb; leiom; leiop; lejob; yaub; lejaum; 

Iie-kleh', n. (P). (Prench,-Le clef.) A 
key. Example: Mamook le kleh,— ^lock 
the door. Mahsh lekleh,— to unlock, or 
mamook halo lekleh. 

Iie'-mah, or I^h'ma, n. (P). (Prench,- 
T^a main.) The hand; the arm; thumb; 
flnsrers; sleeve; handle; limb or knot of 
a tree. (Differentiate by gesture.) Ex- 

ample: Kloshe lemah, — the right (liter- 
ally, the good hand). Potlatch lemah,^ 
shake hands. Iskum kopa yaka lemah, 
— to get in his hand or arm; to hug. 

Le-'mel, n. (P). (lie mool, on Puget 
Sound.) (Prench,-L.e mulet.) A mule. 

Zie-mo'-lo, n., adj. (Pr. Canadian,- Le 
moron; undoubtedly a corruption of 
Marron, a runaway negro. It applies to 
men as well as animals, as, for instance, 
to the tribes which have had no inter- 
course with the settlements. Eells says 
it is becoming obsolete, as the word wild 
is taking its place.) Wild; uutamsd; 
skittish; uncivilized. Halo lemolo,— 

Zie-moo'-to, or Lam-mu'-to, n. (P). 
(Prench,-Les moutons.) Sheep. The 
word sheep is rapidly taking its place.) 

Ii?-pee, n. (P). (Prench,-Le pied.) The 
feet; a foot; lesr; thierh; foot print; track; 
paw; (luh-pee-ay, — difCerentiate by ges- 
ture.) Buchanan. Example: ITaka la- 
pea yaka kokshut, — his leg is broken. 
Kah lapea mitlite, — a footstep. Klata- 
wa kopa lapea, — to walk. Tzum kah le- 
pea mitlite, -footstep; track. 

Le-p'let, n. (P). (Prench,-Le pretre.) 
A priest; minister; clersryman; parson. 
Example: ITahwa klatawa nesika leplet, 
— there goes our minister. (St. Onge 
gives: Xiesepek, — bishop. lesapot, — 
apostle. Katolik,— Catholic. Sesu Kli, — 
Jesus Christ. Faska, —Easter. Olo time, 
— Lent. Komenio, — communion. Kopil- 
masio, — confirm ation. lapatkot, — pente- 
cost. Eklis,— church. Ekstlem oksio, — 
extreme: unction.) 

le-sak', n. (P). (Prench,-Le sac.) A 
bao*; a pocket; a sack. 

Le-whet, n. (P). (On Puget Sound, la 
whi'p.) (French,-La fouet.) A whip. 
Mamook lewhet, to whip. ja 

I^ice, n. (Enorlish,-rice.) Bice. Ex.: 
Mika tikeg-h lice? -do you wish for rice? 

Iiip'-lip, V. (by onoma. — Hale). To 
boil. Ex. : Okoke lice yaka liplip alta, — 
the rice is boiling now. Mamook liplip, 
— to make, or cause to boil. 

Iiiver. n. (E). A river. Example: 
Taka mitlite kopa liver, — he Is living at 
the river. 

Xiockit, lakit, or lokit, — see Ziakit. 

Iio'-lo, V. (C). (Chinook,-idem.) (Or- 
iginally, to carry a child on the back. 
In Jargon, used in a more extended 
sense.) To carry; to load; to bear; 
bring-; fetch; remove; transfer; conv^^y; < 
lucr; pack; renew. Example: Mamook ^ 
lolo kopa canim, — to load into a canoe. 
Kloshe mika lolo okoke iktas, — good you 
carry these things. Man yaka kumtuks 
lolo, — a carrier. 

lowuUo, lolo, or lohlo, adj. (C). (Chi- 
nook.-Lowullo.) Bound; whole; the en- 
tire of ansrthinq*. Ijowullo sapeleel,— 
whole wheat. Mamook lowullo.— ^to roll 
up (Shaw). (Not in general use.) 



£ope, n. (E). (Ensflishi-Kope.) A 
rope. Tenas lope, — a cord. Skin lope, — 
a raw hide, riata, or thong. 

Ltim, n. (E). (Eng-lish.-Rum.) Spirits 
of any sort; rum; whiskey. 


Mah'kook, v., n. (N"ootka,-Makuk; Nit- 
tinat and Tokwaht.-idem ; Makali,-Bak- 
watl.) To buy or sell; trade or ex- 
chang-e; a bargain; purchase. ("As their 
buying and selling was merely barter, 
the same word always answered both 
operations." — Gibbs.) Eells says: "Gibbs 
gives it as a noun, a bargain, but it is 
not so used now. He also gives it as 
to sell, trade, or ezchang-e, but mahsh 
is now used, to sell, and huybuy to 
trade and ezcbangre." .Ex.: Hyas mah- 
kook, — dear; very dear( in price) Wake 
hyas mahkook, ortenas mahkook, — cheap. 
Kah mika mahkook okoke iktahs? — 
where did you buy the goods? Mahkook 
man, — merchant; ..trader; ..salesman; 
storekeeper. Mahkook house, — a trad- 
ing-house or a store. Nika tikeg-h mah- 
kook iktahs, — I wish to buy some things. 
(Other spellings: Mahcook; makook; 
makouke; makuk; markoke; markook.) 

Mahsh, V. (P). (Prench.-Marcher.) To 
leave; to turn out; to throw away; sell; 
acctuit; banish; cast; dash; desert; dis- 
patch; dismiss; distribute; detach; drop; 
apply; expel; to part with; remove; ex- 
terminate; extinguish; fling; forsake; 
get rid of; heave; hurl; lay down; omit; 
insert; pour; put; reject; release; relin- 
quish; remit; send; remove; sling; sow; 
spill; spend; thrust; toss; transmit. Ex- 
ample: Mahsh chuck kopa boat,— bail 
the boat out. Nika mahsh nika kuitan, 
— I have sold my horse. Cultus mahsh, 
— to waste. Halo mahsh, — to hold. 
Mahsh okoke salmon, — throw away that 
fish. Tenas mahsh, — to move. Mahsh 
konoway yaka wind, — to die; expire. 
Mahsh milfa capo, — take off your coat. 
Mahsh klahanie, — to exclude; eject; de- 
liver; evict; turn out; export. Mahsh! 
(to a dog), — get out! Mahsh keekwulee, 
— to inject; sink; lower; enclose; throw 
down; put inside. Mahsh tenas, — to liave 
a child; to be delivered. Mahsh kunam- 
okst, — to mingle; to mix; to add. Takka 
mahsh tum-tum kopa nika, — he has 
given me his orders, or told me his 
wishes. Mahsh kopa illahee, — to bury. 
Mahsh kow, — to untie. Mahsh stone, — 
to castrate. Mahsh lametsin kopa lemah 
yaka kloshe kopa small pox,^to vac- 
cinate. Mahsh mesachie, — to go to stool. 

Mah-sie, v. (F). (Prench,-Mercie.) 
Thank you; thanks; thankful. (Eells 
!^nys also to pray.) Example: Kloshe 
nesika mahsie kopa Saghalie Tyee, — let 

us pray to God. Wawa mahsie, — to give 
thanks; to praise. Mahsie kopa Sagha- 
lie Tyee, — the Doxology. 

Maht'-lln-nie, adv. (C). (Chinook,- 
Matlini.) Off shore; out at sea. (In 
boating), — keep off! (If on land),- to- 
wards the water. 

Mah'twil-lie, adv. (C). (Chinook,- 
Mathwili.) In shore; shoreward. (As 
a command), — keep in. (On land), — to- 
wards the woods, or the interior. 

Mal-i-eh, v., n. (P). (Prench,-Marier.) 
To marry; to get married; marriage; 
matrimony. Example: Yaka malieh al- 
ta? — is he married now?Alta nika kla- 
tawa kopa malieh, — now I am going to 
the marriage. Elip kopa malieh, —ante 
nuptial. Man yaka chee malieh, a 
bridegroom. Klootchman yaka chee ma- 
lieh, — a bride. Halo malieh,- -a bene- 
dict. Mamook cut kopa malieh, or, kok- 
shut malieh, — a divorce; to be divorced; 
to get a divorce. 

Ma -ma, n. (E). (English.-Mamma.) A 
mother; a mama. Example: Halo ma- 
ma, — motherless. Eahkwa mama, — 
motherly; maternal. Fapa pe mama, — 
parents. Halo papa pe mama,— orphans. 
Mama yaka ats, — an aunt. Mama yaka 
mama,- a grandmother. Mama yaka ow, 
— an uncle. 

Mam'-ook, n., v. (N). (Nootka,-'nam- 
uk.) To make; to do; to work; labor; 
exertion; exercise; act; action; deed; 
work; enact; appoint; accomplish; make; 
manage; operate; practice; resolve; 
serve; use; toil; a job; task; achieve, 
the one word denoting action. "The 
most useful of all Chinook words, as it 
is prefixed to many nouns, verbs and 
adjectives and makes them active verbs; 
hence, more than any other word it is 
the sign of the active voice." — Ii^ells. 
"On Puget Sound it is probably the 
most common word in use. I have given 
209 phrases which begin with it. which 
answer to a single English word." Dr. 
Boas says, however, it has acquired an 
obscene meaning and is no longer in use 
on the Columbia river. "Used generally 
as a causative verb, as , mamook chako 
(make to come) bring; mamook liplip, 
make to boil," — Hale. Ex.: Ikta mika 
mamook? — what are you doing? Mamook 
elip, — to begin; commence. Mamook 
halo, — to demolish; destroy; erase; ruin; 
efface; evacuate; overthrow; repeal. 
Mamook haul, — to haul; subtract; ex- 
tract; pull; pull off; pick (as apples); 
dig (as potatoes). Mamook huyhuy, — 
to change; trade; exchange. Mamook 
kloshe, — to make good; shine; trim; 
heal; pacify; remedy; repair; prepare: 
please; sure: to make safe; surp; or 
useful. Mamook tumtum, — to think: 
reason; meditate; reckon; ponder; re- 
view; muse; decide; determine; sur- 
mise; plan; account; appraise; elect; be 
amazed; estimate; decide; deduce; de- 



sign; contemplate; consider. Mamook 
tzum, — to write; record, subscribe; 
mark; copy; dye; engrave; enroll; 
enumerate. Mamook alki; mamook by- 
by, — to defer; delay. Mamook chako, — 
to bring; make to come; fetch. Mamook 
cnltuB, — to spoil. Mamook delate, — to 
confirm; straighten; make right; cor- 
rect. Mamook kalikwa, — to imitate; as- 
similate; mimic. Mamook kilapie, — to 
twist; unwind; withdraw; turn over (as 
a canoe); bring or send back. Mamook 
kopet, — to stop; check; complete; finish; 
conclude; deter; quell; quench; annul; 
prohibit; restrict; extinguish; extermi- 
nate; abolish; debar. Mam.ook kow, — to 
tie; wrap; hitch; clasp; shackle; strap; 
confine; detain; fasten; capture; arrest; 
envelop. Mamook kum.tuks, — to teach; 
show; explain; acquaint; describe; dis- 
close; edify; educate; illustrate; in- 
form; instruct; reveal; introduce; pub- 
lish. Mamook kunjih; mamook kwnn- 
nnm, — to count; enumerate. Mamook 
sick tum.tTim, — to afflict; ill treat; hurt 
one's feelings. Mamook skookum, — to 
strengthen;; invigorate; strive; uphold. 
Mamook skookum. tumtum, — to encour- 
age; to make brave. Mamook skookum 
haul, — must. Cliee mamook, — the begin- 
ning; new work. Cultus mamook, — mis- 
chief; poor work. Delate kujutuks ma- 
mook, — practical; knowing how to work. 
Halo delate m.amook, — to pretend; not 
right work. Kumtuks maitnook, — skill; 
to know how to work. Kwanesum ma- 
mook, — to persevere; persist; endure; be 
diligent; be industrious; always at work. 
Fotlatch mamook, — to hire; employ; give 
work. Tikeg-li mamook, — to endeavor; 
to wish for work. 

Man, n. (E). (Eng-llsli,-idem.) A man; 
the male of any animal; a husband. 
Example: Man moolock, — a buck elk. 
Tenas man, — a young man or boy. ITika 
man, — my husband. Sister yaka tenas 
man, — a nephew. Tamahnous man, — a 
conjurer; an Indian doctor; a sorcerer. 
Man kloshe kopa yaka lepush pe klale 
kopa yaka tumtum, — a hypocrite. Man 
yalra mamook cooley steamer, — a pilot. 

Mel'-ass, n. (F). (French,-Melasse.) 
Molasses. ("Not much used, as silup 
(syrup) has largely taken its place." — 
Eel Is.) 

Mem'-a-loost, or Mlm'-a-loos, v., n., 
adj. (C). (Chinook,-Memalust.) To die; 
dead; to expire; decay; become rotten. 
Ex.: Chako mimaloos, — to decay: be- 
come rotten. Mamook memaloost, — to 
kill: assassinate: execute; murder. Mi- 
maloose kopa chuck, — to drown. Mima- 
loose illahee, — a grave; graveyard; 

Me-sah-chie, adj.. n. (C). (Chinook,- 
Ma.'^achi.) Bad; wicked; evil; vile; sin; 
bitter; cruel; depravity; dissolute; dung-; 
fllthv; immodest; nasty; obscene; vice; 
insolence; unworthy; unrxQy; iniquity; 

un.rig-hteous; naug-hty. Example: Elip 
mesachie, — worse. Elip mesachie kopa 
konoway, — the worst. Hiyu mesachie 
mitlite, — unclean. Mesachie mitlite, — 
danger; peril. "Mesatchee, — bad, vile, 
vicious, in the sense of vileness, filth, 
dirtiness, etc., whether in the abstract 
or in the concrete." — Buchanan. 

Me-si'-ka, pron. (C). (Chinook,-Mesai- 
ka.) "The second person, plural num- 
ber in all cases." You; your; yours. 
"There is no such thing as case in Chi- 
nook, therefore one form represents at 
once the nominative, possessive and ob- 
jective cases, or what corresponds to 
them in English." — Buchanan. 

Mi'ka, pron. (C). (Chinook,-Maika.) 
(Anything pertaining to the first person, 
singular number.) You; your; yours; 
thee; thou; thy; thine. Example: Okoke 
mika kiutan? — is this your horse? Kah 
mika klatawa? — where are you going? 

Mi'-mie, adv. (C). (Chlnook,-Maiami.) 
Down stream. 

Mit'-lite, V. (C). (Chinook.-Mitlait.) 
To sit; sit down; stay at; reside; remain; 
have; inhabit; abide; dwell; exist; dwell; 
be present; recline; keep; ling-er; lodge; 
possess; reside; roost; wait. (Also used 
for the impersonal verb, to be; is.) 
Example: Kah mika mitlite? — where do 
you live? Yaka mitlite kopa yaka house, 
— he is at his house. (It is also used 
in place of to have and to be.) Example: 
Mitlite kopa house, — he is in the house. 
Mitlite hyiu salmon kopa mika? — have 
you plenty of salmon? Mitlite (imp.), 
— sit down. Cultus mitlite, — to stop 
anywhere without particular object. 
Mitlite tenas,— to be with child. Mit- 
lite keekwillie, — to put down. Halo mit- 
lite, — absent. Kloshe mitlite, — stay; 
hold; hold on; remain. Kunjih mitlite, — 
how many remain. Okoke mitlite, — this 
is the remainder. Mitlite kopa chuck, — 
to be wet: soaked. 

Mit'-whit, V. (C). (Chinook,- Amet- 
whet.) To stand; stand up; rise; be 
erect. Example: Kloshe mesika mit- 
whit,— please to arise. Mitwhit stick, — 
a standing tree; a mast. 

Mokst, Mox, or Moxt, adj. (C). (Chi- 
nook,-Makst.) Two; twice; double; dual; 
couple; pair; second. Example: Mokst 
tahtlum, — twenty. Mokst tukamonnk, — 
200. Mokst tumtum, — double minded; 
dubious; in doubt. 

Moo'la, n. (P). (Prench,-Moulin.) A 
mill; a manufactory. Example: ImSl- 
vlash, or stick moola. — a saw-mill. Sapo- 
lil moola, — a flour-mill. 

Moo'-lack, n. (C). (Chinook,-Emuluk.) 
An elk. (This word, strangely enough, 
occurs also in the Koquilth of Humbolt 
Bay.) The word is obsolete now. 

Moon, n. (E). (Eng-lish,-idem.) The 
moon. Example: Ikt moon, — a month. 
Sick moon, — the wane or old moon. Chee 
moon, — the new moon. Kopa mokst 




moon nika kllapie, — in two months I will 

Moos'-moos, n. (K. C.) (Klikatat,-Mus- 
mus; Chinook.-Emusmus.) Buffalo; 

horned cattle; beef. (The word, slight- 
ly varied, is common to several lan- 
guages. Mr. Anderson derives it from 
the Cree word IHIoostoos, a Buffalo, and 
supposes it to have been imported by 
the Canadians; but Father Pandosy 
makes Musmus Yakima.) (Eells says: 
"The Clallams and Twanas have adopted 
it into their languages, either from the 
Chinook Jargon, the Yakama or some 
other native language; my opinion is 
that the latter is true, as buffalo skins 
were brought to Puget Sound from the 
Yakama long before the whites came, 
and the name naturally came with it; 
so the Yakamas undoubtedly had a 
name for them long before the Cana- 
dians came.") Example: Yaka mitlite 
tag-litim moosmoos, — he has six cattle. 
Man yaka knmtuks mamook mimoloose 
moosmoos, — a butcher. 

Moo'-sum, v., n. (S). (Chilialis,-Mu- 
sam.) To sleep; sleep; asleep; slumber. 
Ex.: Tikeg-li moosum, or olo moosum, — 
to be sleepy (literally, to want, or be 
hungry for sleep). Yaka moosum alta, 
— he sleeps now. Nika liyas moosum, — 
I slept very sound. 

Mow-itsh, Mow-itcli, or Mah'-witsli, n. 
(N). (Nootka,-Mauitsh (Hale); Nittinat,- 
Moitsh. — a deer; lTootka,-Moowatsh, — a 
bear (Jewitt). A deer; venison; animal. 
(Frequently used to signify a wild ani- 
mal: as, Huloima mowitsh, — a strange 
or different kind of beast. The meaning 
given in Jewitt's book is probably a mis- 
print. Like Moolock, an elk, the word 
is found in the Koquilth of Humbolt 
Bay.) (Other spellings: Mahwitch; ma- 
wicli; mawitsh; mowich; mowitsh; mou- 
eech; mouits; wowicli.) 

Muck-a-muck, n., v. (Quaere u. d. Mak- 
amak (Hale). (Neither Chinook nor Chi- 
halis. Mr. Anderson considers it an in- 
vented word.) To eat; bite; food; im- 
bibe; lunch; chew; browse; devour; suck 
food; nutrition; picnic; subsistence; ail- 
ment; diet; feast. (Muckamuck is to 
take anything into the mouth; hence, 
muckamuck salmun, to eat salmon; 
muckamuck chuck, to drink water; 
muckamuck kinootl, to smoke or chew 
tobacco." — Hale.) Example: Mamook 
piah muckamuck, — to cook food. Pot- 
latch muckamuck, — to feed. Sail kopa 
mamook kloshe lapush spose nesika 
muckamuck, — a napkin. Muckamuck 
chuck, &-C., — to drink water, or other 
liquid. Muckamuck kopa polaklie, — sup- 
per. Muckamuck kopa sitkum sun, — din- 
ner. Muckamuck kopa tenas sun, — 
breakfast. (Other ways of spelling: 
Mackamack; makmak; mokamok; muca- 
muc; mucamuck; muckermuc; muka- 
muck; mukamuck; makamak.) 

Mus'-ket, n. (Engfllsh.-idem.) A giin 
or musket. Stick musket, — a bow. 


Na, — the interrogfative particle. "In- 
terrogation is, however, generally con- 
veyed by intonation only." — Gibbs. "The 
negative enclitic, 'na,' in use in former 
years, is now obsolete, and is never 
heard now — on Puget Sound at least." — • 

Na'-ha, or Na-ah, n. (C). (Chinook,- 
Tlkanaa.) A mother, (Hale.) Peculiar 
to the Columbia, and now in fact obso- 
lete, the English 'mama' being used in- 
stead." — Gibbs. "St Onge is the only 
writer who uses it." — Eells. 

Nah, interj. (Common to several lan- 
guages.) Behold; look; look here; ha; 
hey; look here; I say; listen; here; ho; 
hark; harken; say. Example: Nah 
Sikhs! — halloo friend! (Used in com- 
mon conversation to call attention to 
some point not thoroughly understood, 
but generally nanitch is used for this 
purpose. In the Yakama language, it is 
the sign of the vocative; as Nah tehn! — 
O man.) 

Nan'-itsh, or Nan-ich, v. (Quaere u. d.) 
(Nootka,-Nananitch. — Eells.) To see; 
look; look for; seek; observe; grlance; 
view; perceive; behold; listen; look here. 
("Often used in a sentence to call atten- 
tion to a certain point, as, — see here.) 
Example: Nanitsh! — look there! Kloshe 
nanitsh! — look out! take care! be careful; 
nourish; be cautious; nurse; defend; pre- 
serve; entertain; protect; foster; steady; 
guard; tend; take heed; supervise; 
watch; provide. Cultns nanitsh, — to 
look round idly, or from curiosity only. 
Mamook nanitsh, — to show. (The word 
is neither Chinook nor Chihalis. Dr. 
Scouler gives nannanitsh as Nootka and 
Columbian. It is possibly the former.) 

Na-wit'-ka, adv. (C). (Chinook,-idem) ; 
Klikatat and Yakama,-N'witka.) Yes; 
certainly; yes, indeed; to be sure; aye; 
assuredly; indeed. Example: Nawitka 
nika klatawa, — yes, I will go. Nawitka 
wake nika kumtuks, — indeed I don't 
know. Klonass nawitka, — perhaps; 

probably so. "Wawa nawitka, — to per- 
mit; acquiesce; assent; consent; accord. 
(In answer to a negative question, many 
Indians use it as affirming the nega- 
tive.) Example: Wake mlka nanitsh? 
— did you not see (it)? Nawitka, — I 
did not. 

Nem, n. (E). (Enarlish,-Name.) A 
name. Example: Mamook nem, — to 
name, or call by name. Kloshe nem, — 
honor; a good name. Hyas kloshe nem, 
— a great name. 

Ne-8i'-ka, pron. (C). (Chlnook.-Nisai- 



ka.) (Among the Quinaielt Indians I 
found in 1892 that it is pronounced 
en-sl-lca." — Eells.) We; us; our. Ex- 
ample: Chako kopa uesika, — come to 
us. Alki nesika klatawa, — soon we will 
go. Nesika kuitan delate till, — our 
horses are very tired. Nesika self, — 

Ne'-whab, (C). (Chlnook.-Niwlia.) It 
seems to be an adverb used, as is often 
the case, as a verb, the meaning being 
hither, come, or bringr it hither. Ex.: 
Newhah nika nanitsh, — here, let me see 

Ni'-ka, pron. (C). (Chinook,-Naika.) 
I; me; my; mine. The first person, sin- 
gular, in all cases. Ex.: "The personal 
pronouns become possessive merely by 
being prefixed to nouns; as, nika house, 
my house; mika papa, thy father; nesika 
illahee, our land." — Hale. "Sometimes 
8 is added to the personal pronouns in 
the possessive case; thus nikas, — mine; 
mikas, — yours; yakas, — his, hers, its; 
nesikas, — ours; mesikas, — yours; klas- 
kas,— theirs. This mode is generally 
used only when the pronoun is the last 
word in the sentence, thus: Okoke kiu- 
atan nikas."— Eells. Nika nanitch yaka, 
— I see him. Yaka kokshut nika, — he 
hit me. Nika klootchman, — my wife. 
Nika man, — my husband. Nika self, — 
myself. Nika tenas maa, — my boy; son; 
sweetheart. Nika tenas klootchman, — 
my girl; daughter; sweetheart. Nika 
tumtum, — I guess; think. Nika tum- 
tum kahkwa, — I approve;' I think so. 

Numerals: The numerals below a 
thousand are all from the Old Chinook, 
and are as follows: .Ikt, — one; mokst, 
— two; klone, — three; lakit, — four; kwln- 
num, — five; tag'hum, — six; sinamokst, — 
seven; stotekin, — eight; kweest, — nine; 
tahtlum,— ten; tukamonuk, — one hun- 
dred. For some reason the words for 
eight and nine are used but little, either 
being replaced by the English words 
eight and nine, or by the combinations 
for five and three, kwinnum pe klone, 
and five and four, kwinnum pe lakit. 
Thousand is either represented by the 
words tahtlum tukamonuk, — ten hun- 
dred, or by the word thousand. Ross 
(1849) gives hloh, (probably hiyu, 
many) as the word for thousand; hioh- 
bioh, — two thousand: hioh-hioh-hioh, — 
three thousand; and hloh-hioh-hioh-hioh, 
— four thousand." — Eells. The combina- 
tions of the numerals are simple, as 
tahtlum pe ikt (ten and one) eleven; 
mokst tahtlum pe kwinnum (two tens 
and five) twenty-five: tagrhum tahtlum 
(six tens) sixty: klone tukamonuk, — 
three hundred; Ikt thousand (or taht- 
lum tukamonuk) stotekin tukamonuk, 
kweest tahtlum pe klone, — one thousand, 
eight hundred and ninety-three." — Eells. 

Nose, n. (Enarlish-idem.) "(Buck-sid 
(Indian.-Common.) Bock-s'd." — Buchan- 

an. The nose; also, a promontory. Boat 
nose, — the bow of a boat. Example: 
Yaka mamook camp kopa nose, — he is 

camped at the spit. 


O'-koke, or O'-kook, proh, (C). (Chi- 
nook,-Okok.) This; that; it; these; those; 

(differentiate by pointing). (Okoke, 
this or that, is the only demonstrative 
pronoun.) Example: Iktah okoke? — 
what is that? Okoke klaksta, — he who. 
Okoke klaska, — they (being present). 
(It is often abbreviated to oke; as, oke 
sun. — Gibbs.) Okoke mitlite, — the re- 
mainder, Okoke polaklie,— tonight. 
Okoke sun, — today. "There are no 
words for articles, except that the dem- 
onstrative pronoun okoke, that, is some- 
times used to denote a very definite 
the."— Eells. 

O'-lal-lie, or O'-lil-lie, n. (Belhella.) 
(Belhella,-idem.) Originally the salmon 
berry. (Chinook,-Klalelli, — berries in 
general.) Berries; fruit. Ex.: Klale 
olallie, — blackberries. Pil olallie, — cur- 
rants; cranberries. Sallal olalllie, — sal- 
lal berries. Olallie chuck, — berry .iuice. 
Shot olillie, — huckleberries. Seapho, or 
siahpult olillie, — raspberries; thimble 
cap berries. Salmon olillie, — salmon 
berries; &c. (On Piiget Sound always 
called olallie.) 

O'-le-man, n., adj. (E). (English,-01d 
man.) An old man; old; worn out; 
stale. Example: Okoke kuitan yaka 
hyas oleman, — that horse is very old. 
(As regards articles, used in the sense 
of worn out.) 

O'-lo, adj. (C). (Chinook,-idem.) Hun- 
gry. Example: Olo chuck, — thirsty. 
Olo moosum, — sleepy. Nika hyas olo 
alta, — I am very hungry now. Wake 
siah mimoluse kopa olo, — famished. (Olo 
moosum, not used on Puget Sound to 
my knowledge, — tikearh moosum, is 
sleepy. — Eells.) Olo time, — Lent. 

Oo'-a-kut, or Way hut, n. (Chinook,- 
Wehut; Yakima,-Wiet.) , A road; path; 
trail; way; highway; lane. (Under the 
spelling Oyhut it is the name of a place 
in Chehalis County, Wash. — Eells.) Ex- 
ample: Kah ooakut kopa Olympia? — 
where is the road to Olympia? Ooakut 
kopa chuck, — a channel. Ooakut kopa 
town, — a street. (Eells says: "The pro- 
nunciation as I have given is not found 
in any of the dictionaries, but is what 
I have almost universally found on 
Puget Sound: wayhut being very sel- 
dom used. Gibbs says that on the Co- 
lumbia it is pronounced hwehkut, and 
on Puget Sound weehut; but Gill (Port- 
land) gives oehut, and I have seldom 
heard anything but ooahut on Puget 



Sound; only occasionally wayhut.") 
(Other ways of spelling: Hooikut; oi- 
liat; oihot; oeliut; ohehut; owakut; hweh- 
kut; weehut; wehkut; oyhut.) "The In- 
dians are very quick to detect any dif- 
ference in the intonation or method of 
pronunciation of the whites, and some- 
times think we speak different lan- 
guages. An Indian asked me one day 
(while pointing to a cow) what was the 
name we called that animal. I told him 
cow. He said that he had just asked 
another white man, and he called it a 
oaow. By this means, different Indians 
who have been with the whites acquire 
a habit of pronouncing such English 
words as they pick up in the same style 
and manner as the person from whom 
they learn them. This causes a great 
discrepancy in the Jorgon, which at first 
is difficult to get over. And, again, each 
tribe will add some local words of their 
own language, so that while a person 
can make himself understood among any 
of the tribes for the purposes of trade, 
it is difficult to hold a lengthened con- 
versation on any subject without the 
aid of some one who has become more 
familiar with the peculiar style." — Judge 

O'-poots, or O'pootsli, n. (C). (Chinook,- 
Obeputsh.) Tlie fundament; the poste- 
rior; tlie tail of an animal; anus; end; 
rectum; stem; back; backside. Example: 
Boat opoots, — the rudder. Opoots-sill, — 
a breach clout. Humm opoots, — a 

Ow, n. (Chinook,-Au.) A "brotlier 
young-er tlian the speaker. Example: 
Kah mika ow? — where is your brother? 
Elip ow, — an older brother. Kahkwa ow, 
— fraternal; brotherly. Ow yaka klootcli- 
man, — a sister-in-law. Ow yaka tenas 
man, — a nephew. Ow yaka tenas klootcb- 
man, — a niece. 

Order of the "Words: "There is no 
settled authority in regard to the order 
of the words in this language. They are 
generally placed in much the same order 
as they are in the language which the 
speaker has been accustomed to use, 
if he be not well acquainted with the 
language. An English speaking person 
will place them in much the same order 
that he would in English, but there are 
many phrases where this is not true, 
the order of which must be acquired by 
practice: for instance, — halo nika kum- 
tuks, — not I understand, is far more 
common than nika halo kumtuks. An 
Indian who has learned somewhat the 
English order, will arrange the words in 
much the same way: but if the speaker 
is an old Indian who knows but little 
about English he will arrange them much 
as he is accustomed to do in his native 
tongue, which is usually very different 
from the English. As the tendency, 
however, is not for the whites to learn 

the native Indian languages, but for the 
Indians to learn the English, so the 
tendency is toward the English order of 
the words." — Eells. 

Pahtl, adj. (C). (Chinook,-Patl.) Pull. 
Example: Pahtl-lum or paht-lum, — 
drunk. Pahtl chuck, — wet. Pahtl ilia- 
hie, — dirty. Mamook pahtl, -to fill. 
Kwanesum yaka pahtlum, — he is always 
drunk. (Other ways of spelling pahtl: 
Partle; patl; patle; pattle.) (Pahtlum is 
also spelled: Pahtllum; patlem; phat- 
lunx; pahtUam; partlelum; potlum; pot- 

Paint, or Pent, n., adj. (E). (Eng-lish,- 
Paint.) Mamook pent, — to paint. 

Papa, n. (Eng'ligl>:'-idem). A father. 
Ex.: Nika nanitsh yaka papa,^ — I se© his 

Pa-se'-se, or Pa'-see-sie, n. (C). (Chi- 
nook,-Pasisi.) A blanket; woolen cloth 
Ex.: Vaka mitlite kwinnum paseesie, — 
he has five blankets. Tzum paseesie, — a 
quilt. "Paseesee, is properly pronounced 
with the accent on the second syllable. 
You will see how very different the word 
becomes if you attempt to accent the 
first or last syllables." — Gill. 

Pa-'si-ooks, n., adj. (C). (Chinook,- 
Pasisiuks.) (French; a Frenchman. Ex.: 
Ahnkuttie hiyu pasiooks man mitlite 
yakwa, — formerly many Frenchmen 
lived here. (Mr. Hale supposed this to 
be a corruption of the French word 
Francais. It is, however, really derived 
from the foregoing word, Pasisi, with 
the terminal uks, which is a plural form 
applied to living beings. Lewis and 
Clarke (vol. 2, pp. 413) give Pashlshe- 
ooks, — clothmen, as the Chinook name 
for the whites, and this explanation was 
also furnished me by people of that 
tribe. It has since been generally re- 
stricted to the French Canadians, though, 
among some of the tribes east of the 
Cascade Range, it is applied indiscrim- 
inately to all the Hudson's Bay people.) 
— Gibbs. (Other ways of spelling: Pah- 
seooks; pasaiooks; pasaiuks; passaiooks; 
pesioux; pesyooks; pasheshiooks ; passi- 
uks.) "The origin of some of the words 
is rather whimsical. The Americans, 
British, and French are distinguished by 
the terms Boston, Kingrchotsh (King 
George), and Pasaiuks, which is pre- 
sumed to be the word Francais (as 
neither f, r, nor the nasal n can be pro- 
nounced by the Indians) with the Chi- 
nook plural termination uks added. The 
word for blanket, paseesee, is probably 
from the same source (francaises, — 
French goods or clothing)." — Hale, (See 



Pe, or Pee, conj. (P). (Prencli,-Puis). 
And; but; Eells says and and but are its 
only meanings. Gibbs and Hale give 
then, besides, or. Hale says: "Only two 
conjunctions, properly speaking, are 
found in the language, — Pe and Spose, — 
often contracted to Pos. These two con- 
junctions form the only exceptions to 
the rule that all the grammatical ele- 
ments of the jargon are derived from the 
proper Chinook language. The pronouns 
and the numerals are pure Chinook." 
Ex.: TTaka pe nika klatawa, — he and I 
will go. Vaka wawa kabkwa pe nika 
wawa liuloima, — he said so, but I said 
differently. Pe weg-lit, — and; also; be- 
sides. Pe kabita, — and why; for what; 
what reason. 

Peli'-pah, or Papali, n. (Englislx,-Pa- 
per). Paper; a letter; any writing-; 
book; message. Ex.: Mamook pehpab, — 
To write. Elosbe mika mamook papah 
kopa nika, — please to write a letter for 
me. Kumtuks papab, — to read. Sag-ba- 
lie tyee yaka papab, — the Bible; Testa- 

Pel'-ton, or Pehlten, n., adj. (Jargon). 
A fool; foolish; crazy; absurd; insane. 
Ex.: Kahkwa pelton, — like a fool; hyas 
pelton mika, — you are very silly. (The 
Indians adopted this word from the 
name of a deranged person, Archibald 
Pelton, or perhaps Pelton, whom Mr. 
Wilson P. Hunt found on his journey to 
Astoria, and carried there with him. The 
circumstance is mentioned by Franchere, 
in his "Narrative," trans., p. 149.) "The 
word pehlten — insane, crazy — comes 
from "Pilion," the name of an employee 
of the Hudson's Bay, who become insane. 
Between the French and English pronun- 
ciation of that name, the Indians made it 
pilio, pilian, and at last pehlten, and 
adopted the name to mean insane in 
general." — Kamloops Wawa. (Other 
spellings: Pelhten; pilten; piltin; pil- 

Pe-shak', or Pe-shuk, adj. (N). (Noot- 
ka,-Peshuk). (Nittinat,-idem). Bad. 
(Mesachie is used for it on Puget Sound 

Pe-what -tie, adj. (C). (Chinook,-Pih- 
wati). Thin, like paper, etc. 

Pi'-ah, n., adj. (E). Pire; ripe; cooked; 
mature; blaze; flame; burned; mellow. 
Example: Slamook piah,— to cook; to 
burn. Plah-ship, — a steamer; piah olil- 
lie, — ripe berries. Piah chuck, — whiskey. 
Piah sapolill, — baked bread. Piah sick, — 
the venereal disease. Sa^halie piah, — 
lightning. Shot olallia yaka piah alta,^ 
the huckleberries are rioe now. 

Pil, adj. (C.) (Chinook,-Tlpelpel). 
Bed; of a reddish color. (Father Pan- 
dosy gives Pilpilp as signifying red, in 
the Nez Perce or Sahaptin, also.) Pil 
illlhie, — red clay or vermillion. Pil dol- 
la, — gold. Pil chickamin, — copper. Pil 
kiuatan, — a bay or chestnut horse. 

Pil'-pll, n. (Jarsron). Blood. Kijru 

pipll chako, — much blood came. Mahsh 
pilpil, — to bleed; to menstruate. (De- 
rived from the foregoing). (Lee and 
Frost give pilpil, as red.) 

Pish, n. (E). Pish. Example: ISiIika 
tikegh mahsh okoke pish, — do you wish 
to sell that fish? Kah isktim pish, or 
kah pish milite, — a fishery. Mamook 
pish, — to troll; to fish. Muckamuck 
kopa pish, — bait. 

Pish-pish. (See Puss-puss.) 

Pit-lilh, or Pit-hlil', adj. (Quaere u. 
d.). Thick in consistence, as molasses. 

Piu-piu, n., v., inter j. (P). (Prench,- 
puer). To stink. Or from the sound oft- 
en uttered expressive of disgust at a bad 
smell. A skunk. Generally used as an 
interjection. Example: Piupiu! What 
a bad smell there is! (Humm, is gener- 
ally used in sentences.) 

Poh, V. (CIiinook,-idem). (By onoma). 
To blow; a puff of breath. Mamook 
poh, — to blow out or extinguish, as a 

Po'-lak-lie, or Polakly, n., adj. (C). 
(Chinook, — Polakli). Night; darkness; 
dark; gloom. Example: Tenas polak- 
lie, — evening; Hyas polaklie, — late at 
night; very dark; Sit-kum polaklie,— 
midnight (literally, — the half night). 
Alki polaklie chako, — soon night will 
come. Kimtah sitkum polukly, — after 
midnight. (Other spellings:— Polack- 
ley; polackly; polakle; polaklie; polike- 
ly; poUakle; poolakle; polukly). 

Po'-lal-lie, n. (Quaere French, Pou- 
dre). aunpowder; dust; sand. Polallie 
illahie, — sandy ground. (The word is 
certainly neither Chinook nor Chihalis.) 
(Other ways of spelling: — Polale, polal- 
ly, polalely, pollalley, poUallie, poolala, 

Poo, n. (By onoma,- (Hale). The 
sound of a gain. Mamook poo, — to shoot; 
Moxt poo, — a double-barreled gun. To- 
hum poo, — a six-shooter. (Other spell- 
ings: — Po, poh, pu.) 

Pot'-latch, or Paht-latsh, n., v. (N). 
(Nootka,— Pahchilt, ( Jewitt) ; Pachaetl. 
or Pachatl, (Cook). A gift; to give; al- 
lot; cede; expend; pay; impart; restore. 
Ex.: Cultus potlatch, — a present or 
free gift; expecting no return; a dona- 
tion. Mamook potlatch, — to make a pot- 
latch. Tikesrh potlatch, — to offer. Note — 
"A great distribution of gifts; the larg- 
est gathering and festival of the Indi- 
ans of the North Pacific Coast." — Eells. 
"The potlatch was the greatest institu- 
tion of the Indian, and is to this day. 
From far and near assembled the invited 
guests and tribes and with feasting, 
singing, chanting and dancing, the boun- 
teous collection was distributed? a chief 
was made penniless, the wealth of a 
lifetime was dissipated in an hour, but 
his head ever after was crowned with 
the glory of a satisfied ambition; he had 
won the honor and reverence of his peo- 



pie. It was a beautiful custom; beauti- 
ful in the eyes of the natives of high or 
low degree, confined to no particular 
tribe, but to be met with everywhere 
along the coast." — The Siwasli. 

"Potlatch (noun) — That which is giv- 
en, bestowed, bequeathed, given, etc., — 
i. e., a gift. Always given with the ex- 
pectation, greater or lesser, of a return. 
Cultus potlatch, — a purposeless gift, that 
is, outright with no expectation of re- 
turn. Fotlatcb., — an old Indian feast and 
custom, forbidden by law, characterized 
by extreme extravagance on the part of 
the host or hostess in the bestowal of 
gifts upon guests. Fotlatcli muckamuck, 
— To give food." — Buchanan. (Other 
ways of spelling: — Fotlash, potlatch, 
potlach, potlatsh). Kloshe mika potlatch 
nika wawa kopa yaka, — to intercede. 
Cultus potlatch tumtum, — to advise; 
counsel; to give advice or counsel. 
Kloshe kopa cultus potlatch, — generous. 
Ipsoot potlatch doUa kopa tyee, — to 
bribe. Potlatch doUa, — to give alms; to 
pay. Potlatch kloshe wawa, — to con- 
gratulate; admonish. Potlatch kopa sag"- 
halie tyee, — to dedicate; to consecrate. 
Potlatch kumtuks kopa mesachie, — to 
warn; give warning. Potlatch mesachie 
wawa kopa tillikums, — to insult. Pot- 
latch muckamuck pe konaway iktas, — 
to support. Potlatch sag'halie yaka wa- 
wa, — to preach. Potlatch skookum wawa, 
— to reprove; exhort. Potlatch wawa,— 
to make a speech; to speak; to order. 

Puk'-puk, n. (Probably an invented 
word). A hlow with the fist; a fist-fig-ht. 
Mamook pukpuk, — to box; to fight with 
the firsts. Pukpuk solleks, — to fight in 

Puss'-puss, n. (E). A cat. . (On Pu- 
get Sound, pronounced Pish-pish.) — 
Eells. Hyas pusspuss, — a cougar. 

Sagh'-a-lie, Sahhali, n., adj. (C). 
(Chinook, — sakhali ; Clatsop, — ukhshak- 
hali). Up; above; high; upper; celes- 
tial; uppermost; over; top; upwards; 
heaven; sky. "Saghalie has been trans- 
lated by the Indians into nearly all their 
languages on Puget Sound; as, (Wis 
sowulus, — Twana.) Shuk siab,— Clal- 
lam). (Tsitsl siam,— Clallam). (Klo- 
kut als, — Upper Chehalis). Klokt als, — 
Lower Chehalis). All of which mean the 
same. — The Above Chief."Eells. Ex.: 
Potlatch sag'halie tyee yaka wawa, — to 
preach. Sag'halie tyee yaka book, — the 
Bible; Scriptures; Testament. Sag'halie 
tyee yaka tenas,^Jesus Christ; God's 
son. Sag'halie tyee yaka illahie, — heav- 
en. Sag'halie tyee yaka wawa, — a ser- 

mon; religious talk;, gospel; religion. 
Sag'halie tyee (literally, — the Chief 
above). Qod; I^ord; Deity; Jehovah; 
Providence. A term invented by the mis- 
tionaries for want of a native one. Alki 
uesika klatawa kopa sag'halie, — soon we 
will go to heaven. Saghalie kopa, — 
house, — upstairs. Sag'halie illahie, — 
mountain. Tenas sag'halie illahie, — a hill. 
(Other spellings: — Sahale; sahali; sag'- 
halie; sahhahlee; sahhale; sahhali; sa- 
hilli; sakahlee; sakailly; sakalie; sakal- 
ly; sokallee; saukhale; and so on). Sag'- 
halie piah, — lightning. Sag'halie tyee 
nesika papa, yaka tenas, Jesu^, pe yaka 
Holy Spirit, — the Trinity. Sag'halie tyee 
papa, — God the Father. Tillikums klas- 
ka halo kumtuks kopa sag'halie tyee,— 

Sail, or Sill, n. (Eng'lish, — sail). A 
sail; or any cotton or linen goods. Cloth; 
calico; sheet; flag'. Example: Okoke sail 
hyas cultus, — that cloth is very poor. 
Mamook sail, — to make sail; Mamook 
keekwillie sail, — to take in sail; Tzum 
sail, — printed cloth or calico. Snass sail, 
— oil cloth. (Other spellings: Seel, sel, 
sell, sil, sill). 

So-kol'-eks, or Se-kol'-uks, n. (C). 
Chinook, — tsakaluks, — leggings). Trou- 
sers; pantaloons; pants; breeches. Ex- 
ample: Keekwillie sakoleks, — drawers. 
Okoke sakolleks hyas mahkook, — -these 
pants are very dear. Klahanie sakolleks, 
— overalls. (Other spellings: Sakah- 
leks, sakaleks, sakalooks, sakaluks, sak- 
uleks, seg-alax, sekarlox, sekoluks, she- 

Sal-lal', n. (C). (Chinook, — klkwu- 
shala.) (Shelwell, of Lewis and Clarke). 
The sallal berry; fruit of gualtheria 

Salmon, or Sam'-un, n. (Eng'lish, — 
idem). The salmon; fish g'enerally. Ex- 
ample: Mika tikeg'h mahkook salmon? — 
do you wish to buy a salmon? Tyee sal- 
m,on, — i. e., chief salmon, the spring sal- 
mon (salmo kwinnat, Rich.); Masahchie 
salmon, a winter species (salmo canis, 
Suckley) ; Tzum salmon, — salmon trout. 

Salt, n., adj. (Eng'lish,-idem). Salt, 
or a salt taste. Hyas salt chuck, — the 
ocean. Salt chuck, — salt water; brine; 
marine; the sea; waters of Puget Sound. 
Salt chuck tupso, — sea weed. 

San-de-lie, n., adj. (P). (Prench,- 
Cendi'e). Ash-colored. (Anderson). A 
roan horse; roan-colored. 

Sap'-o-lill, n. (C). (Chinook,-Tsape- 
lil). (Yakima, — saplil; — bread. — (Pan- 

dosy). Whpat; flour, or meal; a loaf; 
grain. Example: Hiyu sapolil milite, — 
there is much flour. Piah sapolill, — 
baked bread. lolo sapolill, —whole 
wheat. (The word has been erroneously 
supposed to come from the French La 
farine. It is, however, a true Indian 
word, and seems common to various Co- 
lumbia river tribes. Pandosy gives Saplil 



as Yakima for bread; Lewis and Clarke 
write it Chapelell.) (Other spellings: 
Cliapalell; sapalel; sapolel; sapolill; sap- 
pelail; sapplel; sapplil). 

Se'-ah-liost, or Se-ag-li'-ost, n. (C). 
(Chinook, — Siakhost, — the face). Tlie 
face; tlie eyes; eyeball; countenance; 
forehead. (Differentiate by gesture.) — 
Buchanan. Example: Halo seahhost, — 
blind. Icht seahhost, — one-eyed. Lakit 
seahhost (four eyes), or DoUa seahhost, 
— spectacles (or glass seahost). Nika 
nanitch yaka kopa nika seahost, — I saw 
him with my eyes. Chuck kopa seasost, 
— tears. Iiametsin kopa seahost, — eye- 
water. Tupso kopa seahost, — bread. 
(Other spellings: Seakose; searhost; 
seeahhoos; seeakhose; seeakose; seeouist; 
seeowist; siahoos; sheaug'houest; sia- 

Se'-ah-po, or Se-ah-pult, n. (P). 
(Prench.-Chapeau.) A hat or cap. Ex- 
ample: Klootchman seahpo, — a bonnet; 
a woman's hot. Vaka seahpo mitlite ko- 
pa yaka latet, — his hat is on his head. 
Seahpult olillie, — the raspberry. (Other 
spellings: Seahpolt, searportl, seeahpal, 
siapool, siapult, seohpo.) 

Self, n. (Engrlish,-idem.) Self. Ex- 
ample: Klaska self, — themselves. Me- 
sika self, — yourselves. Mika self, — 
yourself. Nesika self, — ourselves. Mika 
self, — myself. Yaka self, — himself; her- 
self; itself. 

Shame, or Shem, n. (Eng'lish,-idem.) 
Shame. Example: Halo shame, — shame- 
less. Halo shem mika?— aren't you 
ashamed of yourself? Mamook shame, — 
to deride; disgrace; dishonor; ridicule. 

Shan-tie, v. (P). (Prench,-Chanter.) To 
singr. (Other spellings: Shante, shartee, 
sharty, shonta.) 

Ship, n. (English,-idem.) A ship or 
vessel. Stick ship, — a sailing vessel. 
Piah ship, — a steamer. .Ship-man, — ^ 

Shoes, n. (Eng>lish,-idem.) Shoes; skin 
■hoes; moccasins. Ex.: Stick shoes, — 
boots or shoes made of leather. 

Shot, n. (Eng-lish,-idem.) Shot; lead. 
Ex.: Shot olillie, — huckleberries. Okoke 
•hot hyas till, — these shot are very 

Shu'-grah, or Shu'-kwa, n. (E). Sug-ar; 
honey. Example: Halo shugra mitlite, — 
there is no sugar. . (Other spellings: 
Shug-a, shuka, sooka, sook, sugtir.) 

Si-ah', ad.i. (N). (Nootka,-Saia.) (Noot- 
ka,-Sieyah, (Jewitt) Sky; hence perhaps 
the afar. — Gibbs.) Par; far off; afar; 
away; distant; remote. (Comparative 
distance is expressed by intonation or 
repetition; as, Siah-siah, — very far; (see 
Ahnkuttie).— Gibbs.) Jewitt gives Sieyah 
as the sky in Nootka, which was per- 
haps the true meaning, or, more prob- 
ably, they called the sky "the afar." 
Example: Alki nika klatawa siah, — soon 
I will go far off. (Prolong the last syl- 
lable and it means very far. — Eells.) De- 

late siah, — a great distance. Elip siah, — 
farther. Elip siah kopa konaway, — farth- 
est. Tenas siah, — a little ways off. Wake 
siah, — not far; near. Wake siah kahkwa, 
— nearly so. Wawe siah kopa, — about; ad- 
joining; almost; around; by. (Other 
spellings: Sia; saia; sciah; siar; siyah.) 

Si-am, n. (C). (Chinook,-Ishaiem.) The 
g'rizzly hear. (Sometimes siam itchwoot. 
— Eells.) 

Sick, adj. (Engrlish,-idem.) Sick. Ex- 
ample: Sick tumtum, — grieved; to feel 
with the heart; regret; worry; sorry; 
jealous; unhappy; sad; heartache. Ma- 
mook sick tumtum, — to hurt one's feel- 
ings. Sick kopa kwolan, — earache. Sick 
tumtum kunamokst, — to have sympathy. 
Cole-sick-waum-sick, — fever and ague. 

Sikhs, or Shikhs, Six, n. (C). (Chinook,- 
Skasiks ; Sahaptin.-Shikstua. — Pandosy. ) 
A friend; companion. (Used only to- 
wards men. — Gibbs.) Example: Klahow- 
ya Sikhs, — how do you do, friend. (Other 
spellings: Six; seix; sex; shixe; siks; 

Sin'-a-mokst, or Sin'-a-moxt, adj. (C). 
(Chinook,-Sinimakst.) Seven. Example: 
Sinamokst man mitlite yukwa, — seven 
men are here. Tahtlum pe sinamokst, — 
seventeen. Sinamokst tahtlum, — seventy. 
Sinamokst tukamonuk, — seven hundred. 
(Other spellings: Cinamust; senemokst; 
senemoxt; sennamox; sinamox; sina- 

Sis'-ki-you, n. Cree. (Anderson). A 
hob-tailed horse. (Tolmie and Dawson 
give tshis-ki-you, — sky; aht, — kaiook- 
waht.) — Editor. (This name, ludicrously 
enough, has been bestowed on the range 
of mountains separating Oregon and Cal- 
ifornia, and also on a county in the lat- 
ter state. The origin or this designa- 
tion, as related to me by Mr. Anderson, 
was as follows. Mr. Archibald R. Mc- 
Leod, a chief factor of the Hudson's 
Bay Company, in the year 1828, while 
crossing the mountains with a pack 
train, was overtaken by a snow storm, 
in which he lost most of his animals, 
including a noted bob-tailed race-horse. 
His Canadian followers, in compliment 
to their chief, or "bourgeois," named 
the place the Pass of the Siskiyou,— an 
appellation subsequently adopted as thb 
veritable Indian name of the locality, 
and which thence extended to the whole 
range, and the adjoining district. — 
Gibbs.) (See note under Tatoosh.) 

Sit'-kum, n., adj. (C). (Chinook,-Sit- 
kum (Anderson) ;Clatsop,-Asitko.) A 
half; a part; fraction; middle; some; a 
piece. Example: Delate sitkum, — ex- 
actly half — not a part. Elip sitkum, — 
a quorum; more than half. Sitkum dol- 
la, — half a dollar, Sitkum sun, ^noon. 
Elip sitkum sun, — forenoon. Kah sun 
mitlite kopa sitkum sun, — south. Tenas 
sitkum, — a quarter, or a small part (not 
often used). Sitkum bit, — five cents. 

Si'wash, n., adj. (P). (Prench,-Sau- 



vagre.) An Indian; Indian; aborigines; 
a savasre; savag-e. Example: Hiyu si- 
wash mitlite yukwa, — many Indians are 
here. Ol^oke siwash klootchman, — that 
is an Indian woman. Ktuntuks kopa si- 
wash, — ethnology. Sitkum siwash, — a 
half-breed. "The Siwash of Puget 
Sound (a general term applied to males 
of all the tribes) and the Indians of the 
entire North Pacific coast.") — The Si- 
wash, pp. 10-11. (Walker says: "The 
word is pure Indian and the one used 
by the Wasco Indians, and probably by 
the Klickitats, both of which tribes 
originally ranged along the Columbia 
river from the Cascades to The Dalles, 
and whose languages are nearly identi- 
cal, to designate a human as distin- 
guished from an animal or other crea- 
ture. Probably 'people' is the nearest 
word in English for it. After the com- 
ing of the whites among them they 
adopted the names 'Bostons, ' 'King 
George,' 'Passieuks' (French), etc., re- 
taining the word 'siwash' for applica- 
tion to Indians. While undoubtedly the 
Chinook Jargon was more or less of a 
growth, yet I have been told by the 
Wasco Indians that the language was 
perfected and first written down by the 
Catholic priests at the Dalles, and they 
appear to have drawn quite freely from 
the Wasco language in doing so.") "Out 
of his canoe he is a fish out of water, 
a sloth away from his natural sur- 
roundings. He is like a seal on shore, 
a ducl^ on dry land, ungainly and awk- 
ward." — The Siwash. 

Skin, n. (Eng*lish,-idem.) Skin; a skin; 
leather; hide; pelt; fur; huckskin. Skin 
shoes, — moccasins. Stick skin, — the bark 
of a tree. Dly skin, — leather. 

Skoo'-kum, or Skoo-koom, n., adj. (S). 
(Chihalis,-Skukum.) Strong"; a g-host; 
an evil spirit or demon; ahle; solid; po- 
tent; powerful; vehement; tig'ht; violent; 
tough. Example: Nika kuitan yaka 
skookum, — my horse is strong. Delate 
hyas skookum, — omnipotent. Elip skoo- 
kum, — strongeer. Elip skookum kopa 
konoway, — strongest. Halo skookum, or 
Wake yaka skookum, — feeble; frail; 
flimsy; impotent; infirm; languid; ten- 
der; unable; weak; wavering; decrepit. 
Skookum tumtum (adj., n.), — audacious; 
brave; bold; capable; daring; dauntless; 
determined; earnest; indomitable; reso- 
lute; robust; sanguine; solid; valiant; 
boldness; courage. Skookum chuck, — 
swift water; a rapid. Skookum wawa, — 
to beg; beseech; boast; chide; demand; 
exhort; implore; plead; rebuke; scold; 
screech; scream; shriek; hulloa; urge. 
(Other spellings: Skokoom, skukum, 
shukum.) "Skookum Club," — name giv- 
en to Democratic Club of Seattle; also 
name of a famous brand of cigar. 

Sla-hal, n. (C). (Shinook,-Etlaltlal.) 
Gibbs says it is a g-ame played with 
ten small disks, one of which is marked. 

and mamook slahal, is to play the game, 
or gamble with them; while others say 
that they mean respectively a game and 
to gamble, in general. ("In Twana the 
word for the round disks is Iiahul; in 
Nisqually, l^ahallah; in Clallam. Slehal- 
lum; in Lower Chehalis, Iiahul; and in 
Upper Chehalis, lal. For the gambling 
bones it is slahal in Twana and Nisqual- 
ly, and slehal in Clallam, Evidently on 
account of the similarity of the words, 
Slahal and Iiahul, these words have been 
confounded; mamook lahal being prop- 
ertly to gamble with the disks; and ma- 
mook slahal to gamble with the bones." 
— Eells.) 

Snass, n. (Quaere n. d.). Bain. (The 
word is neither Chinook nor Chihalis, 
and is perhaps manufactured.) Ex- 
ample: Halo nika tikeg-h klatawa kopa 
snass, — I do not wish to go in the rain. 
Snass chako, — it is raining. Cole snass, 
— snow. 

Sol'-leks, or Sah'-leks, n., adj. (Quaere 
u. d.). Ang-er; he aag-ry; malice; hate; 
hatred; hostile; indignant; morose; mad; 
stQky; sullen; he mad. Example: Ma- 
mook solleks, — to fight; resent; offend; 
provoke. Tikeg-h solleks, — to be hostile. 
Kumtuks solleks, — to be passionate. Ha- 
lo solleks, — meek; mild; pleasant. Yaka 
hyas solleks, — he is very angry. Yaka 
solleks kopa nika, — he is mad at me. 
Chako solleks, — to become angry; pro- 
voked, or offended. Hyas solleks, — furi- 
ous; rabid; full of vengeance or rage; 
very angry. Hiyu solleks, — fury; rage; 
vengeance. Solleks wawa, — a quarrel; 
growl. (Other spellings: Saliks, salix, 
sallix, sallux, silex, soleks.) 

So'-pe-na, v. (C). (Chinook,-T'sopena.) 
To jump; to leap; hop; skip; spring". 

Spose, conj. (Eng'lish,-Suppose). If; 
supposing; that; provided that; in order 
that. (Boas says it is more frequently 
pronounced pos on the Columbia river; 
and that pos in Chinook means if; so 
that spose may be explained as due to 
folk etymology on the part of the trad- 
ers, or pos as folk etymology on the 
part of the Chinook. — Gibbs.) (Other 
spellings: Pos, pose, spos.) Example: 
Spose mika nanitsh nika canim, — if you 
see my canoe. Spose nika klatawa kopa 
Chinook, — if or when I go to Chinook. 
Kahkwa spose, — ^s if. (See Kloshe 
spose.) Spose mika tikeg-h, nika klata- 
wa, — if you wish I will go. Spose kopet 
lakit tahtlum sun, Jesus yaka tikeg-h 
klatawa kopa Sag-hale, — (literally) when 
ended four ten days, Jesus he would go 
to Heaven, — i. e., when the forty days 
were ended, He desired to ascend to 
Heaven. "A conditional or suppositive 
meaning is given to a sentence by the 
words klonas, perhaps, and spose (from 
the English 'suppose'), used rather in- 
definitely. Ex.: Nika kwass nika papa 
klonas mimaloose, — I fear my father 
will die (lit., I afraid my father per- 



haps die). Spose mika klatawa yahwa, 
pe nika chaco kalrkwa,— if you will go 
yonder, I will follow (lit., suppose you 
go that way, then I come the same). 
"It will be noticed that these two con- 
junctions form the only exceptions to 
the rule that all the grammatical ele- 
ments of the Jargon are derived from 
the proper Chinook language. Only two 
conjunctions, properly speaking, are 
found in the language— pe, from the 
French word pues, and spose." — Hale. 

Stick, n., adj. (EngrUsh.-idem). A 
stick; a tree; wood; wooden; vine; pole; 
rod. Example: Stick skin, — bark. Ship 
stick,— a mast. Mitwhit stick,— a stand- 
ing tree. Icht stick, — a yard measure. 
Stick shoes, — leather shoes or boots, as 
distinguished from skin shoes or mocca- 
sins. Kull stick, — oak (hard wood). 
Isick stick, — the ash (paddle wood). 

Stock'-en, n. (E). Stockingrs or socks. 
(The Twanas have adopted it into their 
language as stah-kid. — Eells.) 

Stoh, adj. (Chinookj-idem). loose. Ex- 
ample: asamook stoh, — to untie; unloose; 
undo. (Metaphorically, to absolve sins.) 
Stone, n. (Eng-lish.-idem). A rock or 
stone; bone; horn; the testicles; fingrer 
nail; boulder. Example: Stone chika- 
min, — ore. Stone kiuatan, — a stallion. 
Mahsh stone, — to castrate. Stone ilia- 
hie, — a mountain. T'kope stone, — quartz; 
any white stone. 

Stote'-kin, adj. (C). (Chlnook,-Stokt- 
kln.) Eigrht. Example: Tahtlum pe 
stotekin, — eighteen. (Other spellings: 
Istoug-htkin ; sothin; stog-htkin; stopekin; 
stoktkekin; stotkin.) 

Stutch'-un, n. (Engrlish.-Sturgeon). 
The Sttirg"eon. (Other spellings: Stuch- 
un, stutchin, stog-heon, stogreon, stutshin, 

Sun, n. (Eng'lish,-idem). The sun; a 
day. Example: Sun yaka waum alta, — 
the sun is warm now. Okoke sun, — to- 
day. Tahlkie sun, — yesterday. (Ikt tahl- 
kie, — day before yesterday.) Tenas sun, 
— early. Sitkum sun, — noon. Wake siah 
sitkum sun,— almost noon. Ikt sun, — 
Monday. Mokst sun, — Tuesday. Klone 
sun, — Wednesday. Iiakit sun, — Thurs- 
day. Kwinnum sun, — Friday. Tasfhum 
sun, — Saturday; (formerly muckamuck 
sun). Klip sun, — sunset. Elip sitkum 
sun, — before noon; the forenoon. Kim- 
tah sitkum sun, — after noon; the after- 

Sun'-day, or Sante, n. (Engrlish.-idem). 
Sunday; week. Example: Eloshe mika 
chako kopa church house kopa Sunday, 
— please to come to church on Sunday. 
Sunday sail, — a flag, because formerly 
on Sunday the flag was raised at the 
Hudson's Bay Company's posts. Ikt Sun- 
day, — a week. Eyas Sunday, — a holiday. 
(A flag hoisted on a particular occasion 
is sometimes also called Sunday. The 
Other days of the week are usually 

counted from this; as. Icht, Mokst, Klone 
stin kopet Siinday, — one, two, three days 
after Sunday. Saturday used to be 
called at the Hudson's Bay Company's 
posts "muckamuck sun", — food day, as 
the one on which the rations were is- 
sued.)— Gibbs. (Eells gives: "Hyas Sun- 
day, — a holiday, as Fourth of July: 
Christmas. Mokst Sunday,— a fortnight. 
Ikt Sunday, — a week; but the word week 
is rapidly taking its place.") 


Tag-h'-um, To'-hum, or Tug-h'-um, adj. 
(C). (Chinook,-Takhum; Cowlitz,-Tuk- 
hum; Kwantlen,-Tukhum ; Selish,-Tak- 
kan.) Six. Example: Tahtlum pe tag-- 
hum, — sixteen. Tag-hum tahtlum, — sixty. 
Tag'hum tukamonuk, — 600. (Other spell- 
ings: Tag-hkum; taham; tahkhum; ta- 
hom; tahnm; tohhum; tuchum; tug-hh- 
kam.) (Clallam, — T'hung. Upper Che- 
halis, — Tahum.) — Eells. 

Tahl-kie, or Tahnl-kie, adv. (C). (Chl- 
nook,-Tanlki.) Yesterday. Example: 
Yaka chako tahlkie, — he came yesterday. 
Tahlkie sun, — yesterday. Icht tahlkie, — 
day before yesterday. "Talki sun, — yes- 
terday. Mox talki sun, — day before yes- 
terday. TomoUah, — tomorrow. Talki 
moon, — last month. Talki waum illahee, 
^last summer. Talki cole illahee, — last 
winter." — Buchanan. (Other spellings: 
Tahnkie; talke; talki; tanke; tanilkey; 
tantki; tanlke.) 

Taht'-lum, or Taht'-le-lum, or Tot'-le- 
lum, adj. (C). (Chinook,-Tatlelum.) Ten. 
(The combinations from this are simple.) 
Example: Moxt, klone, &c., Tahtlum, sig- 
nifying twenty, thirty, &c. ; Tahtlum pe 
icht, &c., eleven, twelve, &c. ; tahtlum- 
tahtlum, one hundred. (Other snellings: 
Eattathlelum; tahtelum; tahtil^#a; tart- 
lum; tatlelam; tatlelom; tattelum; taug-h- 
leltim; tohtleum; totlum.) 

T'al-a-pus, n. (€). (Chinook.-Italipas; 
Yakima,-Telipa (Pandosy). The • coyote 
or prairie wolf. A sort of deity or super- 
natural being, prominent in Indian myth- 
ology. A sneak. Eells gives, "Hyas 
opoots talapus, — same as Talapus. Some 
give Talapus as Coyote or Prairie Wolf 
and Hyas opoots talapus as Fox. and 
some exactly the reverse, custom prob- 
ably being different according to lo- 

Ta-mah-no-us, n. (C). (Chinook,-Ita- 
manawas.) A sort of gniardian or famil- 
iliar spirit; mag-ic; luck; fortune; any- 
thing- supernatural; the spirits; a srhost; 
g-oblin; idol; witch. "A name applied to 
anything the Indians cannot understand. 
A Tah-mah-na-wis man is a doctor, 
priest, conjurer, and fortune-teller, a 
dealer in magic and a maker and de- 



stroyer of charms for good and evil, all 
in tiie same personage." — Phillips. 
("One's particular forte is said to ba his 
Tamalmous.") — Gibbs. Example: Ma- 
xaiook tamaluioiis, — to conjure; "make 
medicine." Masahcliie tamalmous, — 
witchcraft or necromancy. Mr. Ander- 
son restricts the true meaning of the 
word to conjuring. Halo yaka mitlite 
tamalmous, — he has no guardian spirit. 
" 'Klale Tah-mali-na-wis,' the name of 
the secret society of black magic." — 
Phillips. "There were four kinds of ta- 
mahu-a-wis, sometimes spelled ta-mahn- 
o-us, or spirit practices in vogue among 
the Twanas as there were among the 
great family of Selish Indians in Wash- 
ington. The word ta-mahn-a-wis may 
be and was used in the sense of a noun, 
an adjective or a verb. As a noun it 
means any kind of a spirit in the spirit 
world from the Sahgr-ha-lie Tyee, or 
supreme being, to the Mail ta-mahn-a- 
wls, or devil, literally, black spirit. As 
an adjective a ta-m.alin-a-wis stick, 
stone, person, etc., is a tiling or indi- 
vidual with a ta-malin-a-wis or spirit 
either of good or evil in it. As a verb 
it is used in the sense of invoking the 
aid of spirits, as 'mali-m.ok ta-mahn-a- 
wls.' The four kinds of ta-mahn-a-wis 
of the Indians of the Twana tribe at 
least are: The 'ta-mahn-a-wis over the 
sick,' the incantations of the medicine 
men; the 'red ta-mahn-a-wis,' the 'black 
ta-mahna-wis,' and the 'spirit land ta- 
mahn-a-wis.' The sick ta-mahn-a-wi3 
was only practiced for the healing of 
the sick. The red, or pill ta-mahn-a-wis, 
was an assembling togetlier, an invoca- 
tion, in short, of the spirits for a good 
season the following summer. It lasted 
three or four days and consisted of sing- 
ing, dancing, the beating of tom-toms, 
drums and the decoration of the face 
and limbs and body invariably with 
streaks and spots of red paint. The 
black, or klail ta-miahn-a-wis, was the 
free masonry of the Twanas and was 
without doubt the one great religion of 
all religious practices among them. It 
was a secret society to a very large 
extent, and none but the Initiated were 
ever permitted to have anything to do 
with it. Masks made in rude imitation 
of the wolf head were used, and these 
were called shway-at-sho-sin. The prac- 
tice of the spirit land ta-mahn-a-wis 
was associated with or founded on a 
very pretty myth believed in by the old 
Twanas to the effect that a year or two 
perhaps before an Indian died he or she 
lost his or her spirit. Spirits from other 
places, always from below, would visit 
the Indian and, quite unaware to the 
person, would take and carry off the 
spirit and sail with it to their abiding 
place, there to hold .it in captivity un- 
less released by spirits from this life. 
The theory of the medicine ta-mahn-a- 

wls is that when a person is sick some 
evil spirit has taken possession of the 
body, sometimes more than one evil 
spirit, and of different kinds. It was 
always the duty of the ta-mahn-a-wis 
doctors to find out what kind of a spirit 
had entered the body, and then by in- 
cantation and ceremony to drive it out." 
— The Siwash. "The Twana or Skoko- 
mish tribe," pp. 32-40. Ta-mahn-a-wlB 
rattles,— made out of deer hoofs, bear 
and beaver teeth, etc. (Other ways of 
spelling: Tamahnawas, tamahnawis, 
tamahnowus, tamanawas, tamanoaz, ta- 
manous, tomahnawos, tomanawos.) 

Ta-mo'-litsh, or Ta-mow'-litsh, n. (C). 
(Chinook,-Tamulitsh (Anderson); Taka- 
ma,-Tamolitsh (Pandosy). A tub; bar- 
rel; bucket; cask; keg-. Example: Chuck 
mitlite kopa tamolitsh, — water Is in the 
barrel. Icht tamolitsh, — a bushel meas- 
ure. (Other ways of spelling: Tamoo- 
lidg-e, tamolich, tamolich, tamolitch, ta- 
moluck, tamoolitch, tamulidg-e.) 

Tanse, v., n. (English,-Dance.) To 
dance. Example : Hiyu tanse alta, — there 
is much dancing now. 

Te-ah'wit, n. (C). (Chinook.-Tiawi: 
Glatsop,-Klaawit). The leg-; the foot. 
(Differentiate by gesture). Example: 
Xlatawa teahwit, — to go on foot; to 
walk; Klook teawit, — I^ame. (Other 
ways of spelling: Teeahnute, tearwit, 
teawhit, tela wit, teouit.) 

Ta-toos'h, To-toos'h, n. (Chippeway,- 
Totosh (Schoolcraft.) "Tatoosh from 
Cree or Otcipwe. The cognate words are: 
Cree (Lacombe) totosim, ' mammelle, 
pis.' Otcipwe (Baraga) totosh,-breast, 
dug, udder: Alg-onkin (Cuoq), totoc, 
'mammelle.' " — Chamberlain. The breasts 
of a female; milk, bosom; breast; teat; 
udder. Example: Kloshe tatoosh, — - 
cream. Tatoosh lakles, — butter. Ta- 
toosh gleese, — butter. Eells says the 
v/ord milk is taking Its place. (Tatoosh 
Iiig-ht House, Tatoosh Island and Ta- 
toosh, near Cape Flattery, Clallam Coun- 
ty, Wash.) NOTE: The words of a 
Alg-onkian origin which are to be found 
In the vocabulary of Chinook, as given 
by the authorities, are consequently: 
Kinnikinnik, [l^lPishemo, mitass, Siski- 
you, totoosh, wapatoo. Regarding the 
etymology of these loan-words, the fol- 
lowing may be said: Kinni-kinnik. De- 
rived directly or indirectly from Otcipwe. 
The cognates are Otcipwe (Baraga). 
Kinififinige, 'I am mixing together some- 
thing of diffirent kinds.' (Cuoq) kinik- 
iniire, (meler ensemble des choses de 
nature differente.' The radical is seen In 
Algonkin (Cuoq) kinika, 'pele-mele' — 
Cree. Kiyekaw. (See supplemental vo- 
cabulary). Iicpishimo. This word evi- 
dently consists of the French article le 
and a radical [a] pishemo. This latter 
apishamon, 'anything to lie on; a bed: 
corresponds to the Otcipwe (Baraga) 



apishexuo, 'I am lying on something.' 
Compare the Western Americanism 
apisliantoxe which Bartlett (Diet, of 
Americanism, 1877) thus defines: Apish- 
amore (Chippeway, apishamon) . Any- 
thing to lie down on: a bed. A saddle- 
blanket made of bufCalo-calf skins, much 
used on the prairies." Mitass. Directly 
or indirectly (through French-Canadian) 
from Otcipwe or Cxee. The cognate 
words are: Otcipwe (Baraga) midass: 
AlgronlEin (Cuoq), mitas; Cree (Lacombe) 
xuitas. The word exists in Canadian- 
French in the form of mitasse. Dr. 
Franz Boas kindly informs me that 
"legging" in Chinook and Clatsop is 
imetas. (See supplemental vocabulary.) 
Siskiyou. Though this word is assigned 
a Cree origin by Mr. Gibbs, its etymology 
is very uncertain. Blackfoot sakbsiu, 
"short" and Cree klskikkuttew, "he cuts 
in two" offer themselves for comparison, 
but with no certainty" — Chamberlain. 
Tshis-ki-yu, sky, is given by Tolmie and 
Dawson in "Comparative Vocabularies of 
the Indian Tribes of British Columbia" 
— 53 B. (64, sky) Aht. (Kaiookwaht) — 
Shaw. Wappatoo, under proper order in 
main alphabet, (q. v.) Papoose. Another 
word may be added to this list, viz., 
papus (papoose) — child. This word is 
used by the speakers of Chinook in East- 
ern British Columbia. The Algonkin 
origin of the word has been disputed by 
some, but there is every reason to be- 
lieve that it is connected with the root 
seen in the Massachusetts papeissiosu 
(Eliot) — 'he is very small.; peisses 
(Eliot) 'child'; pe-u (Eliot) 'it is small.' 
From this root there seems little doubt 
that the word papoos or papoose found 
in Roger Williams, and in Wood ("New 
England Prospect") has been derived, as 
Dr. Trumbull has pointed out. These 
words were all heard by the writer in 
Western British Columbia in the summer 
of 1891. Siskiyou was not heard and is 
probably obsolescent." — Alexander Fran- 
cis Chamberlain, "Words of Algonkian 
origin (in the Chinook Jargon), in Sci- 
ence. Vol. 18, pp. 260-261. 1891. 

Ten'-as, or Tan'as, n., adj. (N). (Noot- 
ka,-Tanas; Tokwaht,-Tenes.) Small; 
few; little; a child; the young* of any 
animal. Petty; slight; pappoose; baby; 
a mite. Example: Tenas snow chako, — 
a little snow has come. Chako tenas — 
to decrease; diminish; lessen; become 
less. Hyas tenas, — very small. Mamook 
tenas, — to decrease; diminish; lessen. 
Tenas ahnkuttie, — lately; recently. 
Tenas hiyu, — a few; some; several. Ten- 
as hiyu times, — sometimes. Tenas laly, 
— an interval; a short time. Tenas 
mahsh.^to move. Tenas polaklie, — 
evening: twilight; sunset; dusk; eve. 
Tenas yaka tenas, — a grand child. Mokst 
nika tenas, — I have two children. Tenas 

yaka tenas man, — a grandson. (Jewitt 
gives Tanassis for a child in Nootka.) 
Chikchik kopa tenas, — a wagon for a 
child: a baby carriage. (Other ways of 
spelling: Tanarse, tanas, tanass, tanaz, 
tunas, tunass.) 

Thousand, adj. (English,-idem). 

(Thousand is either represented by the 
words tahtlum tukamonuk, — ten hun- 
dred — or by the word Thousand. — Eells.) 
Example: Hiyu tillikunts mitlite, klonas 
kunjih thousand, — many people are here, 
perhaps many thousand. 

Tik-egrh, or Tiky, v. (C). (Chinook,- 
tikekh). To want; wish; love; like; 
choose; pick. "To want, to desire, — 
in all shades of meaning and intensity 
from simple desire or want to amorous 
and even lustful desire; also, therefore, 
to love. Also, what one should or ought 
to want to do, as mika ticky muckamuck 
mika lametsin, — you must take your 
medicine. Mika halo ticky smoke, — you 
must not smoke. Mika halo ticky wawa 
kahkwa kopa nika, — you must not speak 
like that to me." — Buchanan. "The fu- 
ture, in the sense of 'about to,' 'ready 
to,' is sometimes expressed by tikeg-h, 
which means properly to wish or desire, 
Nika papa tikesrh mimaloose, — my fath- 
er is near dying, or about to die." — 
Hale. Example: Okoke sun nika tikeg-h 
wawa, — this day I will speak. Hyas 
tikeg-h, — to long for. Ikta mika tikegh? 
— what do you want? Vaka tikeg-h dolla, 
— he wants money. Nika tikegh nika 
klootchman, — I love my wife. Delate i 
halo tikeg-h, — to loathe. Elip tikegh, — 
to prefer; choose; rather. Halo tikegh, 
— averse; dislike; unwilling. Tikegh 
kumtuks, — to enquire; to wish to know. 
(Other spellings: Takeh; take; takeierh; 
tickey; tikeh; tiki; tikke; tikky; t'keh; 
treh; tukegh.) 

Til'-i-kum, or tilakum, n. (C). (Chi- 
nook,-tilikhum). People; relations; rela- 
tives; associate; family; folks; friends; 
kin; kindred; band; tribe; fellow nation; 
population; person. (Applied generally, 
it means those who are not chiefs. It 
is also used to signify a tribe or band.) 
Example: Cultus tilikum, — common or 
insignificant persons. Huloima tilikum, 
— strangers. Nika tilikum, — my rela- 
tions. Yaka klatawa kopa yaka tilli- 
kums, — he has gone to his people. Ahn- 
kuttie tilikums, — ancestors; forefathers. 
Eells gives "Nika tilikums, — my friends; 
my relations; so when preceded by the 
other pronouns, as mika, mesika, nesika, 
klaska, yaka, it has reference to friends 
or relations. Hiyu tiliirums, — a crowd; 
a throng. (Other spellings: Telikom; 
tekum; tJlacum; tilecum; tilicum; telli- 
kum; tillikums (pi.); tillicum; tillo- 

Til'-l-kum-ma-ma, n. (C). (Chinook,- 
Tlkamama). A father. (The word is 



not in use in Jargon. — Hale.) 

Till, or Tull, adj., n. (Eng-lisli,-Tire). 
Tired; heavy; weig-ht; a weig-ht; a pound; 
fatigue. Example: Kansih till okook, — 
how much does that weigh? IVXamook 
till, — to weigh. Wake till, — light (not 
heavy). Mamook till tumtum, — to trou- 
ble. Wake siah miiuoluse kopa till, — 
exhausted. Nika liyas till, — I am very- 
tired. Chako till, — to become tired; 

Tin'-tin, n. (By onoma). A bell; an 
hour; a musical instrument. "When ap- 
plied to a clock it means when the bell 
rings, that is on the hour — therefore it 
means hour or o'clock." — Buchanan. Ex- 
ample: Mamook tintin, — to ring a bell, 
Kunjih tintin alta? — what time is it 
now? (Among the Indians round the 
Hudson Bay Company's posts, the hours 
were thus known; as, Mokst tintin kopet 
sitkum sun, two hours, i. e., two bells 
after noon.) "Ikt tintin, one hour or 
one o'clock. The same word also refers 
to a church bell and any kind of bell, as 
well as the sound produced by it." — 
Buchanan. Blip tahkum tintin, — before 
six o'clock. Kimtah tahkum tintin, — aft- 
er six o'clock. Tahkum tintin, — six 
o'clock; six hours. Wake siah tahkum 
tintin, — almost six o'clock; not far away 
from six o'clock. 

T'kope, adj. (Chinook,-idem). White; 
lig'ht-colored. Example: Okoke pish- 
pish yaka t'kope, — that cat is white. 
T'kope tilikums, — white people. (Other 
spellings: Tecope; teecoop; tekop; te- 
kope; t'koop; la coope.) 

Tlehl. (See Klale). 

Tl'kope, V. (Chinook,-idem). To cut; 
hew; chop. Example: Mamook tl'hop, — 
to cut; mow. Tl'kop ooakut, — to sup- 
plant (to cut one's road). (W. W. — but 
is being superseded rapidly by the word 
cut. — Eells. 

Toh, or Tooh. (By onoma). Mamook 
toh, — to spit. (A manufactured word). 

T'oke-tie, adj. (Kalapuya). Pretty. 
(Not in common use.) 

To'-lo, V. (Kalapuya). To earn; to 
win at a g-ame; to g'ain; control; con- 
vince; manag'e; defeat; overcome; over- 
throw; prevail; profit; prosper; subdue; 
subject; succeed; triumph. Example: 
Kansih dolla nika tola spose mamook?— 
How many dollars will I earn if I work? 
Yaka tolo mokst dollar, — he earned two 
dollars. Nika tolo, — I succeeded. Nika 
tolo yaka, — I prevailed over him. Wawa 
pe tolo,— to persuade. 

To'-luks, n. (Clallam,-Toyuk). The 
mussel. (Used on Puget Sound only.) 

To-mol-la, adv. (Eng-lish,-to-morrow). 
To-morrow. Ikt tomoUa, or kopet to- 
molla, — day after to-morrow. 

To-wa'g-h, adj. (C). Chinook,-Tow- 
akh). Brig-ht; shining; ligrht. 

Tsee, adj. (Chinook,-idem). Sweet. 

Tsee'pie, v., adj. (Kalapuya). To miss 

a mark; to mistake one's road; to make a 
blunder in speaking-; to err or blunder; 
deceive; false; illusive; deceitful. Ex- 
ample: Okoke tseepie mamook, — that is 
a deceitful deed. Tseepie ooakut, — to 
take a wrong road. Mamook tseepie, — 
to delude; dissemble; fool; deceive; mis- 
take; (not quite so* strong as Felton or 
Kliminawhit. — Eells.) Tseepie lalang-, — 
a slip of the tongue. Tseepie mamook, — 
a trick. Tseepie wawa, — to mispro- 

Tshi'-ke, adv. (Quaere u. d.) Direct- 
ly; soon. (Not jargon.) — Hale. 

Tsi-at-ko, n. (S). (Chihalis, Nisqual- 
ly, etc.,-idem; Clatsop.-Echiatku). (A 
nocturnal demon, much feared by the 
Indians. The Skagits give this name to 
the "Couteaux," a tribe of Indians on 
Frazer River, of whom they stand in 
like awe. — Gibbs.) 

Tsik'-tsik, or Tchik tchik, n. (By 
onoma.) (See Chik-chik.) A wagon; 
a cart; a wheel. Example: Tsiktsik 
wayhut, — a wagon-road. 

Tsug-h, n., v. (Chinook,-idem). A crack 
or split. Mamook tsug-h,— to split. Cha- 
ko tsug-h, — to become split or cracked, 
as by the heat of the sun. Mamook 
tsugh illahie, is by some used instead 
of klug-h, for to plough, 

Tuk-a-mo'-nuk, or Tak-a-mo'-nak, adj. 
(C). (Chinook,-Itakamonak.) A hun- 
dred. It is, like ten, combined with the 
digits; as, icht, moxt, klone takamonak, 
— one hundred, two hundred, three hun- 
dred, &c. Hyas tukamonuk, or tahtlum 
tukamonak, — a thousand. (Other spell- 
ings: Ethacamunack; tacomonak; taka- 
monuk; takamunak.) 

Tum'-tum, n., v. (By onoma., from the 
pulsations of the heart. (Anderson). The 
heart; the will; opinion; intellect; inten- 
tion; estimate; memory; mind; opinion; 
plan; purpose; reason; soul; spirit; sur- 
mise; thought; will. (Tumtum, — as a 
verb — To think, to will, to believe, to 
know. As a noun — Thoug-ht, will, belief, 
mind, opinion, knowledge, heart.) — Bu- 
chanan. Example: Mahsh tumtum, — to 
give orders (Gb). Mamook tumtum, — to 
make up one's mind; decide; design; 
muse; account; contemplate; think; plan. 
Mamook kloshe tumtum, — to make 
friends or peace. Sick tumtum, — grief; 
jealousy. Moxt tumtum nika, — I am un- 
decided, i. e., I have two wills.Q. Kah 
nesika klatawa? — where shall we go-? A. 
Mika tumtum, — wherever you please; as 
you will. Ikta mika tumtum? — what do 
you think? Halo tumtum, — without a 
will of one's own, as a child. The heart 
seems to be generally regarded as the 
seat of the mind or will. Iskum kopa 
tumtum, — to believe. Klap tumtum, — to 
decide; recollect; remember. Mahsh tum- 
tum, — to forget, (Eells). Mamook tum- 
tum elip, — to anticipate. Mitlite kloshe 
tumtum kopa, — to admire, Skookum turn- 



tniu, — bold; boldness; brave; capable; 
audacious; courage; determined; earnest. 
Kalikwa nika ttuntum, — so I think. Blind 
kopa tomtum, — ignorant. Chako kloshe 
tumtum, — to be delighted or reconciled. 
Cliako sick ttuntum,— to repent; repine; 
become sorry or sad. Delate hyas sick 
tumtum, — agony. Heehee tumtum — jolly. 
Halo iskum kopa tumtum, — to disbelieve; 
unbelief. Yutl tumtum, — glad spirits; 
happy spirits; proud spirits; rejoice, etc.; 
glad heart; happy heart, etc. (Tumtum, 
— Heart, mind, will, opinion, belief, spirit 
— the animal spirits, not supernatural 
ones — mood, etc. Marsh tumtum, — to 
cast out of mind, — i. e., to forget. Ma- 
mook kloshe tumtum., — to make or to 
cause good feeling.) — Buchanan. Salo 
klap tumtum, — to be puzzled; undecided. 
aalo proud tumtum., — lowly; humble. 
Halo sick tujutum kopa yaka nesachie, — 
impenitent. Halo skookum tumtum., — ir- 
resolute; cowardly; not brave. Halo tum- 
tum, — dull; thoughtless. Halo tumtum 
kalikwa, — to disagree; disbelieve. Hyas 
tumtum, — pompous. Kloslie kopa nika 
tumttim, — beloved. Mamook tumtum ko- 
pa book or papah, — to study. Mitlite 
kloshe tumtum, — to be contented; de- 
lighted; to enjoy. Mitlite kopa tumtum, 
— to remember; recollect. Nika tumtum 
halo yaka chako kahkwa, — unexpected; 
chance; an accident. Wake kopet tum- 
tum, — to remember. Weght mamook 
tumtum, — to reconsider. 

Tum-wa'-ta, n. (Tum, by onoma.; Engr- 
lish. Water). A waterfall, cascade or 
cataract. (Lewis and Clarke give Timm 
as used by the Indians above The Dalles 
of the Columbia in directing them to 
the falls.) Under the spelling of Tum- 
water it is the name of a place in Thurs- 
ton County, Wash. 

Tup'-shin or Tip'-sin, v. (S). (Chiha- 
lis,-Tupshin.) A ITeedle. Mamook tip- 
sin, — to sew; to mend; to patch. 

Tup-so, or Tip'-so, n. (C). (Chinook,- 
Tepso.) A leaf; grass; leaves; fring-e; 
feathers; fur; hair. Often but incor- 
rectly employed for Yakso, — hair. Ex- 
ample: Tipso illahie, — prairie. Dely tip- 
so, — hay. Xlosh tupso, — flowers; blos- 
soms; pansy; violet; rose. Tupso kopa 
latet, — hair. Tupso kopa seahost,— 

Ty'-ee, n., adj. (IX). (Nootka.-Taiyi; 
Tyee (Jewitt). A chief; grentleman; offi- 
cer; superior; boss; foreman; manag-er; 
Indian ag-ent; king-; emperor; president. 
(Ansrthing- of superior order.) Example: 
Sag-halie tyee, — the Deity. Tyee salmon, 
—the spring salmon. (Tyon is given by 
some of the northwestern voyagers as 
the Eskimo appellation for chief.) Kah- 
kwa tyee, — kingly; aristocratic. Tyee 
kopa Washinifton, — the President of the 
United States. (Other spellings: Tai; 
tail; tie; tye; tyeyea; tyhee.) Tyee court, 
—supreme court. Tyee klootchman, — 

empress; queen; matron of an Indian 
school; a woman of authority. Tyee kopa 
newspaper, — an editor. Tyee kopa town, 
■ — a mayor. Tyee salmon, — spring sal- 

Tzum, or T'ss-zum, or Tsum, n., adj. 
(Chinook,-idem). Mixed colors; spots or 
stripes; a mark or fig'ure; writing-; paint; 
painted; picture. Example: Vaka tzum 
kopa yaka stick "S", — his brand on his 
logs is "S." Klale chuck kopa mamook 
tzum, — ink. Mamook tzum, — to write; 
print; stamp; stain; paint; dye; mark; 
record; copy; subscribe; indite; endorse; 
engrave. Tzum illahie, — blazed or sur- 
veyed land. Tzum seahost, — photograph; 
profile; postage stamps. Tzum stick, — a 
lead pencil; a pen. Tzum pish, — a spot- 
ted fish, the trout. "When the letter T' 
is followed by the apostrophe, as above, 
the sound of the T is 'tiss' as nearly as 
it can be written, thus making a syllable 
of itself, as tiss-so-lo, for t'solo." — Phil- 


Wag-h, V. (C). ( Chinook,- wakh.) To 
pour; to spill; to vomit. 

Wake, adv. (M"). (Nootka, — wik; Tok- 
waht, — wek.) No; not; none; the nega- 
tive. See Halo. Example: Wake nika 
kumtuks, — I do not understand. Wake 
delate kopa nanitch, — indistinct; indis- 
tinguishable. Wake klaksta, — none; no- 
body. Wake hiyu, — few; insufficient; 
lacking; rare; scarce; seldom; scant; 
scanty; deficient. Wake kloshe, — mean; 
unkind; improper; inconvenient; untrust- 
worthy; nasty; naughty; wrong. Wake 
siah, — not far; near; almost adjoining. 
Wake kloshe kopa mahkook, — unsalable. 
W^ake siah kopa, — about; around; by. 
Wake siah yahwa, — thereabouts. Wake 
skookum, — feeble; flimsy; frail; languid; 
impotent; infirm; tender; delicate; un- 
able; wavering; weak. Wake skookum 
kopa, — impossible; unable; inability. 
Wake skookum tumtum, — irresolute. 
Wake wawa, — dumb; mum; mute. Note. 
— "Many of the Jargon words, though en- 
tirely different, yet sound so much alike 
when quickly spoken, that a stranger is 
apt to get deceived; and I have known 
persons who did not well understand the 
Jargon get angry with an Indian, think- 
ing he had said something entirely dif- 
ferent from what he actually did. The 
words wake, no, and wicht, directly or 
after, sound as pronounced, very similar. 
Chako, hiac, chako, — come quick! come, 
said a settler one day to an Indian who 
was very busy. Wicht nika chako, — I 
will come directly, said the Indian. But 
the white man understood him to say, 



Wake nlka chako, — I will not come, con- 
sequently got angry. You don't under- 
stand Indian talk; I did not say I would 
not come, said the Indian. If he had 
said Ifarwitika, yes, the white man 
would have understood," — Judge Swan. 
(Wicht means, ag-ain, also, more, the 
word is also spelled wegrht, wagft, weht, 
weh't, weltcli, weqt, and wougrM.) — Shaw. 

Wap'-pa-too, or wap'-a-to, n. (Quaere 
u. d.) The root of the Sagfitarla sag-itti- 
folia, which forms an article of food. 
The potato. "Chamberlain says, .'from 
Cree or Otcipwe. The cognate words 
are: Cree (Lacombe) wapatow, 'cham- 
pignon blanc;' Otcipwe (Baraga), waba- 
do, "rhuharb," Algonkin (cuoq) wabato, 
'rhubarbe du Canada.' It is in all prob- 
ability a derivative from the root wap — 
(wab), 'white.'") "The word is neither 
Chinook nor Chihalis, but is everywhere 
in common use." — Gibbs. Eells says: 
"Since the introduction of the potato 
the latter has been called wapato, and 
the former siwash waptao." (Other 
spellings: Wapatoe; wahpitto; wapetu; 
wappato; wappatoe; wappatoo.) 

Wash, V. (Engflish,-idem.) Example: 
TCamook wash, — to wash. Iskum wash, 
— to be baptized. 

Washington, n. (E). Congress; the 
City of Washing-ton; the Indian Depart- 
ment at Washington. Example: Wash- 
ington potlatch law kopa nesika, — may 
mean that congress has made a law 
for us, or that the Indian Department 
has done so. 

Waum, adj. (E). Warm. Example: 
Okoke sun yaka waum, — today is warm. 
Waum illahee, — summer. Hyas waum, 
— hot. Waum sick, cole sick, — fever 
and ague. 

Wawa, or wau-wau, v. n. (N). (Noot- 
ka, Nittiuat, — wawe. — Gibbs. Chinook, 
— awawa. — Boas.) To talk; speak; call; 
ask; tell; answer; enquire; declare; sa- 
lue; announce; talk or conversation; con- 
verse; apply; articulate; alleare; assert; 
blab; g'ab; chatter; communicate; arg-ue; 
g-ossip; demand; discuss; express; ex- 
claim; hint; interrosrate; lecture; men- 
tion; narrate; proclaim; profess; pro- 
pose; question; relate; remark; report; 
request; say; solicit; message; an anec- 
dote; exclamation; oration; learend; 
question; tale; sermon; speech; voice; 
harang-ue; inquire; jabber; mutter; sur)- 
nlicate; declamation; mandate; narra- 
tive; precept. Example: Ikta miVa 
wawa?— what did you say? Delate 
wawa, — to promise; aver; a fact; truth. 
Hiyu kloshe wawa, — cheer. Kiyu wawa, 
— clamor; argument; much talk; to 
argue; acclaim. Kilapie wawa, — to an- 
swer; reply. Kloshe wawa, — a proverb; 
good talk. Kumtuks wawa, — to be elo- 
n'lent. Mahsh wawa. — to order: to give 
orders; command. (Also to disobey, 1. e.. 

to throw away the talk as well as to 
throw the talk at a person. — Eells.) 
Potlatch wawa, — to speak; make a 
speech. Fotlatch skooktuu wawa, — to 
beg; beseech; boast; chide; demand; ex- 
hort; plead; roar; shriek; rebuke; re- 
prove; implore; exclaim; scold. Cultus 
wawa, — idle talk; stuff; nonsense. Hyas 
wauwau, — to shout; boast; talk loud; 
loud talk. Wawa halo, — to deny; de- 
cline; object; refuse. Wawa klimina- 
wh^t, — to lie; tell a falsehood. Wawa 
kloshe, — to bless; speak well; recom- 
mend. Wawa kloshe chako, — to invite; 
call. Wawa kloshe wawa, — to eulogize; 
bless. Wawa kopa, — to accost. Wawa 
kopa Sag'halie Tyee, — to pray; worshio; 
invoke; prayer. Wawa kopet, — be still. 
Wawa nawitka, — to acknowledge; allow; 
assent; consent; permit, 

Wayhut, Hwehkut, or Weehut, — see 

Week, n. (E). A week. "It is steadily 
taking the place of Sunday for week, 
though I seldom heard it eighteen years 
ago." — Eells. 

Weght, adv. (C). (Chinook,-idem.) 
Aguin; also; more. Ex.: Pe nika weght. 
— and I too. Pahtlatsh weght, — give me 
some more. Tenas weght, — a little more 
yet, Weght nika klatawa, — again I will 
go. Weght chako, — to reassemble. 
Weght klatawa boat, (or ship). — to re- 
embark. Weght klatawa Saghalie, — to 
remount. Weght mamook tumtum, — to 

Win'-a-ple, adv. (N). (Nootka; Nitti- 
nat,-Wilapi.) By-and-bye; presently; 
wait. Of local use; the Chinook "alki" 
being more common. 

Wind, or Win, n. (Eng-lish.-idem). 
Wind; breath; air; atmosphere. (The 
winds are often known by the country 
from which they blow; as, for instance, 
on the Columbia, an easterly is a Walla- 
walla wind; at the mouth of the river, 
a southerly is a Tilamooks wind. K-c.) 
See Chinook wind. Breath. Examnle: 
Halo wind, — out of breath; dead. Wind 
yaka skookum alta, — the wind is vory 
strong now. Mahsh konoway yaka wind. 
— to die; dead. Mitlite wind, — to be 
alive; to have breath. Wake siah mahsh 
yaka wind, — almost dead. Wind chako, 
to blow. Wind chako halo, — to stop 


Yah'-ka, Ya'-ka, or Tok'-ka, pron. (C). 
(Chinook,-Yaka.) He; his; him; she; it; 
hers; its; him; her. (Anything pertain- 
ing to the third person, singular num- 
ber.) The word yaVa is aften used 
somewhat tautologically, as, — instead of 



saying, — Okoke kintan t'kope, — the horse 
(is) white, the expression would be, — 
Okoke kiutan yaka t'kope, — the horse, it 
(is) white. This use of yaka is very- 
common. — Eells. Example: Yaka klata- 
wa, — he has gone, Nanitch yaka, — see 
him. Okoke yaka kuitau, — that is his 
horse. Kopa yaka, — his; hers; its. ITaka 
kniutuks muckamuck whiskey, — a drunlc- 
ard. Yaka self, — himself; herself; itself. 
Yakas, — his; hers; its. 

Yah'-wa, adv. (C). ( Chinook,- Yawakh.) 
There; thither; thence; heyond; in that 
place; that side; that way; yonder. Ex- 
ample: Yahwa yaka mitlite, — there he 
is. Ikt yahwa, ikt yahwa, — apart. Wake 
siah Yahwa, — thereabouts. 

Yak'-so, n. (Chinook,-idem). (See tup- 
so.) The hair of the head; hair gener- 
ally. Example: Yaka yakso chako halo, 
— his hair is all gone. (See tupso.) 
(Tnpso is used more than yakso. — Eells.) 
(Other spellings: lakso, yaksoot.) 

Ya-kwah'-tin, or Kwah'-tin, n. (Chi- 
nook 85 Clatsop,-Yakwatin.) The helly; 
the entrails; stomach; bosom. Example: 
Yaka sick kopa yaka yakwahtin, — he has 
the stomach ache. Keekwulee yakwatin, 
— entrails. 

Yaub. (See Lejaub.) 

Yi'-em, v., n. (S). Chihalis,-Yaiem.) A 
story; tale; anecdote; to relate; to tell 
a story; to confess to a priest; a story 

or tale; to tattle; to preach. 

Youtl, or Yutl, adj. (Quaere Chihalis,- 
Eyutlh; Nisqually.-Juil.) Glad; pleased; 
proud; (of a horse), — spirited. Example: 
Hyas youtl yakka tumtum, — his heart is 
very glad; he is much puffed up. "Ulthl 
means proud, and ulticut long, but they 
are readily confounded with each other." 
— Judge Swan. 

Youtl'-kut, adj., n. (C). (Chinook,- 
Yutlkut.) Ztong* (in dimension); length. 
Example: Okoke stick hyas youtlkut. 
Note. — "A friend of mine, who was about 
leaving the Bay, wished to tell some In- 
dians who were working for him that 
if, on his return, he found they had be- 
haved well, he should feel very proud of 
them and glad, used the following: Ulti- 
cut nika tumtum, or, my heart is long, 
instead of ulthl nika tumtum, or, my 
heart is proud. 'He must have a funny 
heart,' said the Indian \^ho related it to 
me. 'He says his heart is long; perhaps 
it is like a mouse's tail.' " — Judge Swan. 

Yout-skut, or Yutes'-kut, adj. (C). 
(Chinook.-Yutskuta.) Short (in dimen- 

Yuk'-wa, or Yah'-kwa, adv. (C). (Chi- 
nook,- Yakwa.) Here; hither; this side 
of; this way. Example: Yukwa kopa 
okook house, — this side of that house. 
Chako yukwa, — come here. 

Vocabulary Words 

Ahnkuttie, formerly; 

Alki, soon. 

Alta, now. 

Ats, younger sister. 


Huloima, other; another. 
Humm; bad odor. 
Huyhuy, exchange; bargain. 
Hyak, swift; fast; hurry. 
Hyas, great; very. 
Hyiii, much. 

Boat, boat. 
Book, book. 
Boston, American. 
By-by, by-and-by. 

Canim, canoe. 

Capo, coat. 

Chako, to come. 

Chee, lately. 

Chikamin, metal; money. 

Chikchik, wagon. 

Chinook, see (Chinook Indians). 

Chitsh, grandfather. 

Chope, grandmother. 

Chuck, water. 

Cly, to cry. 

Cole, cold; winter; year. 

Cooley, to run. 

Cosho, hog. 

Court, court. 

Cultus, worthless; nothing. 

Delate, straight; direct; true. 
Dly, dry. 
Doctin, doctor. 
Delia, dollar; money. 
Dutchman, German. 

Blip, first; before. 
Enati, across. 

Get-up, rise; risen. 
Qlease, grease. 

Hahlakl, wide; open. 
Halo, not; none. 
Haul, to haul; pull. 
Heehee, to laugh; laughter. 
Help, to help. 
Hoolhool, mouse. 
House, house. 
HuUel, to shake. 

Zkpooie, to shut. 

Ikt, one; once. 

Iktah, what. 

Iktas, things. 

Illahee, land. 

Inapoo, louse. 

Ipsoot, to hide. 

Isick, a paddle. 

Iskum, to take; receive. 

Itlokum, the game of "hand. 

Itlwillie, flesh. 

Itswoot, a bear. 

Kali, where; whence; whither. 

Kahkwa, like; similar to. 

Kahpho, elder brother. 

Kahta, how; why; what. 

Kalitan, arrow; shot. 

Kalakala, a bird. 

Kamas, scilla esculenta. 

Kamooks, a dog. 

Kapswalla, to steal. 

Katsuk, middle. 

Kaupy, coffee. 

Keekwulee, low; below. 

Kilapi, to turn; return; upset. 

Kimta, behind; after. 

King* Chautsh, English. 

Kishkish, to drive. 

Kiuatan, a horse. 

Klah, free; clear; in sight. 

Xlahanie, out of doors; out. 

Klahowya, the common salutation. 

Klahowyum, poor; wretched. 

Klahwa, slow; slowly. 

Klak, ofC; out; away. 

Klaksta, who? what one? 

Klale, black. 

Klaska, they; their; them. 

Klatawa, to go. 

KUminawhit, a lie. 

Klimmin, soft; fine. 

Klip; deep. 

KliskwisB, mat. 

Klonas, perhaps. 

Klone, three. 

Kloshe, good. 



Xloslie-gpose, shall or may I. 
Klootchman, woman; female. 
Kg, to reach; arrive at. 
Kokshut, to break; broken. 
Konaway, all; every. 
Kopa, to; in; at; etc. 
Xopet, to stop; leave off. 
Kow, to tie; fasten. 
KuU, hard. 
KuUag-han, a fence. 
Kumtnks, to know. 
Ktmamokst, both. 
KnnjUi, how many. 
Kwalmesoiu, always. 
Kwahtali, a quarter. 
X waist, nine. 
Kwann, glad. 
KwasB, afraid. 
Kwinntuu, five. 
Kwolan, the ear. 

Jm& boos, or 1*9, pusli, mouth. 

Iia caset, a box. 

Iia cloa, a cross. 

I^a srome, pitch; gum. 

Xia hasli, an axe. 

Iialib, the arbutus uva ursi. 

Iiakit, or I^okit, four. 

Iia lahm, an oar. 

JmSl langr, the tongue. 

Italy, time. 

Ita xnesse, ceremony of the mass. 

Iia metsin, medicine. 

I^ammieli, or ^luxiiuieli, an old woman. 

l^a monti, a mountain. 

I^a peep, a tobacco-pipe. 

i;a pellah, roasted. 

Iia plash, board. 

Xia pome, apple. 

I^a pote, door. 

Iia tet, the head. 

I^aw, law. 

Iia wen, oats. 

le bal, ball. 

Le .laub, the devil. 

lie kleh, key. 

lie mah, hand. 

lie mel, mule. 

lie zuolo, wild. 

lie mooto, sheep. 

"Le pee, foot. 

lie plet, priest. 

Tie sak, bag. 

lie whet, a whip. 

iMice, rice. 

Iiiver, river. 

liplip, to boil. 

Iiolo, to carry. 

Iiownllo, round. 

Iiope, rope. 

Iinm, rum: whiskey. 

Mahkook, to buy. 
Mahsh, to sell; to leave. 
Mahsie, thanks. 
Mahtlinnie, ott shore. 
Mahtwillie, in shore. 

Mahlieh, to marry. 
Mama, mother. 

Mamook, action; to work; to make; to do. 
Man, man; male. 
Melass, molasses. 
Memaloost, to die; dead. 
Mesachie, bad. 
Mesika, you; your; yours. 
Mika, thou; thy; thine. 
Mimie, down stream. 
Mitlite, to sit; remain; to be; liave. 
Mitwhit, to stand. 
Mokst, two. 
Moola, a mill. 
Moolack, an elk. 
Moon, moon; month. 
Moosmoos, buffalo; cattle. 
Moosum, to sleep; sleep. 
Mowitsh, a deer. 
Muckamuck, food; to eat. 
Musket, musket; gun. 
Ufa, the interrogative particle. 
Naha, a mother. 
Nah, inter j., look here! 
ITanich, to see; look. 
Nawitka, yes; certainly. 
Nem, a name. 
Nesika, we; us; our. 
Newhah, here; come here. 
Nika, I; me; my; mine. 
Nose, the nose. 

Okoke, this; that; it. 

Olallie, berries. 

Oleman, old man; old. 

Olo, hungry. 

Ooakut, or Wayhut, road; way. 

Opoots, tail. 

Ow, younger brother. 

Order of the words. 

Pahtl, full. 
Faint, paint. 
Fapa, father. 

Fasese, blanket; woolen cloth. 
Fasiooks, French; a Frenchman. 
Fe, and; but. 
Fehpah, paper. 
Felton, a fool; insane. 
Feshak, bad. 
Piah, fire. 
FU, red. 
Pilpil, blood. 
Pish, fish. 
Piupiu, to stink. 
Foh, to bloy; a puff of breath. 
Folaklie, night. 
Folallie, gunpowder; sand. 
Poo, the sound of a gun. 
Potlatch, a gift; to give. 
Pukpuk, a blow with the fist, 
Pusspuss, cat. 

Sag-halie, above; up. 



Sail, sail; cloth; flag. 

Sakoleks, trousers. 

Sallal, the sallal berry. 

Salmon, salmon; fish. 

Salt, salt. 

Sapolill, wheat; flour. 

Seahhost, face; eyes. 

Sealipo, hat. 

Self, self. 

Shame, shame. 

Shantie, to sing. 

Ship, ship. 

Shoes, shoes. 

Shot, shot. 

Shugrahj sugar. 

Siah, far. 

Siam, the grizzly bear. 

Sick, sick. 

Sikhs, a friend. 

Sinamokst, seven. 

Siskiyou, a bob-tailed horse. 

Sitkum, half; part. 

Siwash, Indian. 

Skin, skin. 

Skookum, strong. 

Slahal, a game; to gamble. 

Snass, rain. 

Solleks, angry; anger. 

Sopena, to jump. 

Spose, suppose; if. 

Stick, stick; wood. 

Stocken, stocking. 

Stoh, loose; to untie. 

Stone, stone. 

Stotekin, eight. 

Stutchun, sturgeon. 

Sun, sun; day. 

Sunday, Sunday; week. 

Thousand, thousand. 

Tikegrh, to want; to love. 

Tiktik, a watch. 

Tilikum, people; relations. 

Till, tired; heavy. 

Tintin, bell; o'clock. 

T'kope, white. 

Tl'kope, to cut. 

Toh, spitting. 

Tolo, to earn; gain. 

Tomolla, tomorrow. 

Totoosh, see tatoosh. 

Towasfh, bright, shining. 

Tsee, sweet. 

Tseepie, to mistake. 

Tsiatko, a nocturnal demon. 

Tsiktsik, see chik chik. 

Tsug'h, a crack, or split. 

Tukamonuk, hundred. 

Tumtum, the heart; will; mind. 

Tumwata, water fall. 

Tupsshin, needle. 

Tupso, grass. 

Tyee, chief. 

Tzum, spots; writing. 


Wagrh, to pour out; to vomit. 
Wake, no; not. 
Wapatoo, potato. 
Wash, to wash. 
Washinsfton, Washington. 
Waum, warm. 
Wawa, to talk. 
Way hut, see ooakut. 
Week, a week. 
Weg-ht, again; also; more. 
Winapie, soon; presently. 
Wind, wind; breath; life. 

Tag-hum, six. 

Tahlkie, yesterday. 

Tahtlum, ten. 

Talapus, coyote; prairie wolf. 

Tamahnous, magic; the spirits. 

Tamolitsh, barrel; tub. 

Tanse, dance. 

Tatoosh, milk; breast. 

Teahwit, leg; foot. 

Tenas, small; few; little. 

Tahka, he; she; it; his; etc. 
Tahwa, there; thence. 
Vakso, hair. 
Vakwahtin, entrails. 
Yiem, a story; to relate. 
Youtl, proud; pleased. 
Youtlkut, long. 
Toutskut, short. 
Tukwa, here. 



Less Familiar Words— Not Strictly Jargon — or of Only Local Use 

Ab'-"ba, (?), well then. 

Ad-de-dah', (S), exclamation of pain, 
■sorrow, surprise. 

Ah-ha, (C), yes. 

Al-ah, (J), expression of surprise. 

A-mo'-ta, (C), strawberry. 

An-a'li, (J), exclamation of pain or dis- 
pleasure; ah! oh! fie! 

Ats, (C), a sister younger than the 

A-yali'-wIial, (S), to lend; to borrow. 

Be'-be, (F), a kiss; to kiss. 
Bit, (E), a dime, or shilling. 
Bloom, (E), broom. 

Bur-dash, (Canadian F), an hermaphro- 

Cal'-li-peen, (F), a rifle. 

Chak-chak, (C), the bald eagle. 

Chet'-lo, (S), oyster. 

Chet-woot, (S), black bear. 

Chil-chil, or Tsil-tsil, (C), buttons; the 

Chitsh, (S), a grandmother. 
Chope, (S), a grandfather. 
Cho'-tub, (S), flea. 
Chuk-kin, (S), to kick. 
Coiul), (E), a comb. 
Coop'-coop, (C), small dentalium, or 

shell money. 
Con-lee, (F), a valley. 

Be'-na, (C), beaver. 

Bk-kah-nam, (C), tale; story. 

Ek-ko-li, (C), whale. 

Bk'-keh, (C), brother-in-law. 

E'-la-han, (S), aid; assistance; alms. 

E-li'te, (C), a slave. 

E-saltTi, or Ye-salt'h, (Wasco.), Indian 
corn; maize. 

Eyeh, (N), yes. 


Haht-haht, (S), the mallard duck. 

Hoh-holi, (J), to cough. 

Ho-ku-melli, (S), to gather; glean. 

Hool-hool, (C), a mouse. 

Howh, (J), turn to; hurry; ho! 

How'-kwntl, (C). inability; unable. 

Hunr-kih, (C), Crooked; knotted; curled. 

Hwah, (J), surprise; admiration; earn- 

Hy'-kwa, (N), shell money; large den- 

Ik'-ik, (C), fish hook. 
It'-lan, (C), a fathom. 

Kah-de-na, (C), to fight. 

Kah'-kah, (J), a crow. 

Kah'-na-way, (C), acorns. 

Kahp-ho, (C), an elder brother, sister, or 

Kal-ak-a-lah'-ma, (C), a goose. 

Kal-a-kwah'-tie, (C), inner bark of the 
cedar; woman's petticoat of bark. 

Ka-iuo'-suk, (C), beads. 

Ka-wa'k, (S), to fly. 

Kaw-ka-wak, (C), yellow or pale green. 

Keep'-wot, (C), needle; pin; thorn; sting 
of an insect. 

Keh -loke, or Kaloke, (C), a swan. 

Kelx'-see, (C), an apron. 

Keh-wa, (?), because. 

Kes'-chi, (C), notwithstanding; al- 

Ket-lingr, (E), kettle; can; basin. 

Kil-it'-sut, (C), flint; bottle; glass. 

Kinni-kiiinik, smoking weed (mixture). 
See note under Tatoosli, main vocabu- 

Xi'-nootl, (C), tobacco; smoking. 

Ki'-wa, (Wasco), crooked. 

Ki'-yah, (S), entrails. 

Klak'-wun, (S), to wipe, or lick. 

Kla'-pite, (C), thread; twine. 

Kla-whop, (C), a hole. 

Klem'-a-hun, (S), to stab, wound, spear. 

Klilt, or Klile, (C), sour; bitter. 

Klik'-a-muks, (C), blackberries. 

Klik'-wal-lie, (C), brass wire; brass arm- 

Kloh-kloh, (C), oysters. See chetlo. 

Klook, (E), crooked. 

Kliili, or Klug-h, (C), to tear; to plow. 

Kluk-ulli', (C), broad, or wide, as of a 

Ko'-ko, (J), to knock. 

Ko'-ko-stick, (J), (knock-tree), wood- 

Koo'sah, (C), sky. 

Kush'-is, (S), stockings. 

Kwah-nice, or Kwad-dis, (Klikitat), 

Kwa-lal-kwa-lal, (C), to gallop. 

Kwarh, (S), an aunt. 

Kwates, (S), sour; bitter; not pleased. 

Kweh-kweh, (J), a mallard duck. 

Kwek-wi-ens, (S), a pin. 

Kweo-kweo, (C), a ring; a circle. 

Kwetlh, (S), proud. 



KwlBh, (?), exclamation of refusal. 

Kwit-shad-ie, (S), hare; rabbit. 

Kwulh, or kwult'li, (C), to hit, strike, or 

wound, (without cutting). 
Kwun'-nun, (S), counting; numbers. 
Kwutl, (C), literally, fast; to push or 


SXa-lah, (C), tin ware, earthenware, 

Mel-a-kwa, (F), a mosquito. 
Mist-chi'-mas, (?), slave. 
Mit-ass, leggings. (See note under Ta- 

toosh, main vocabulary.) 
Moo'-lock, (C), an elk. 

Iia-'bleed, (F), a bridle, 
La-boo-ti, (F), bottle. 
Zia-ca-lat, (F), carrot. 
Iiag-h, (C), to tip; to lean; to stoop; to 

bend over. 
La-g-win', (?), a saw. 
La'-kles, (F), fat; oil; grease. 
La-lah', (C), to cheat, trick; joke with. 
Iia-leem', (F), a file. 
Iia-pehsh, (F), a pole. 
Iia-pelle', (F), a shovel or spade. 
Iia-pe-osh', (F), a mattock or hoe. 
La-pieg-e, (F), a trap. 
La-po-el', (F), a frying pan, (a stove. — 

la-pool', (F), fowl; poultry. 
La-poo-shet', (F), fork. 
La-sanjel, (F), girth, sash, belt, 
la-'bee, (F), a saw. 
Iia-sell', (F), saddle. 
Iia'-shal-loo, (F), plough. 
Iia-shan'-del, (F), a candle. 
Zia-shase, (F), chair. 
ta-sheu', (F), a chain. 
Las-siet, (F), a plate. 
Iia-sway, (F), silk, silken. 
Iia-tahb, (F), table. 
Iia-tlah', (F), noise. 
La-west', (F), waist-coat, vest. 
IiB-bah-do, or Iia-ba-do, (F), a shingle. 
Le bis'-kwie, (F), biscuit, crackers, hard 

Le-Blau', (F), a sorrel horse; chestnut 

Le-clem', (F), cream-colored. 
Iie-cock', (F), a cock; a fowl. 
Le-doo', (F), finger. 

Le-g-ley, (F & E), a gray horse; gray. 
Iie-kloo', (F), nail; nails. 
Le-koo', (F), neck. 
Iie-ky'e, (?), spot; spotted; a piebald 

Iie-lo'-ba, (F), ribbon. 
Le-loo', (F), wolf. 
Le-mah-to, (F), hammer. 
r.e-pan', (F), bread. 

Ls-pisli'-e-ino, saddle-blanket or hous- 
ing. (See note under Tatoosh, main 

le-pwau, (F), peas. 
Le-sap', (F), egg; eggs. 
lie- see-blo, (F), spurs. 
Le-see'-zo, (F), scissors. 
le-sook, (F), sugar. 
Le-tah', (F), the teeth. 
liik-pu'-hu, (?), a sister; an elder sister. 
Luk'-ut-chee, (?F), clams. 

Mall-lie, (S), to 



Na-ha, or ZTa-ali, (C), a mother. 
Nau'-its, (S), off shore; on the stream. 

Hale. The sea-beach. — Anderson. 
Ne-nam-ooks, (C), the land otter. 

O'-la-pits-kl, (C), fire. 

Ol'-hy-iu, (C), a seal. 

O'-luk, (S), a snake. 

O'-na, (C), razor fish or solen; clams. 

Oos'-kan, (C), a cup; a bowl. 

O'-pe-kwan, (C), basket; can; tin kettle. 

O'-pitl-kegh, (C), bow. 

O'-pit-sali, (C), knife, razor, sword. 

Ote-lagrli} (C), the sun. 

Pchih, orPlt-chili, (?), Thin, as of a 

Pe-chusrli, (C), green. 
Pe-what'-tie, (C), thin, slight, flamsy. 
Pit-lilh', (?), thick, as molasses. 
Poo'-lie, (F), rotten. 
Pow'-itsh, (C), crab-apple. 

San-de-lie, (F), roan colored; a roan 
horse, ash colored. — Anderson. 

She-lok'-um, (C), looking-glass; glass. 

Shugrh, (C), a rattle. 

Shug-h-opoots, (C), a rattle-snake. 

Shut, (E), a shirt. 

Shwah-kuk, (S), a frog. 

Si'-pah, (Wasco), straight, like a ram- 

Sis'-ki-you, a bob-tailed horse. (See note 
under Tatoosh, main vocabulary.) 

Sit'-lay, (F), stirrups. 

Sit'-shum, (S), to swim. 

Skwak'-wal, (S), a lamprey eel. 

Skwis'-kwis, (C), a squirrel. 

Smet'-ocks, (S), the large clam. 

Smoke, (E), smoke, clouds, fog, steam. 

Soap, (E), soap. 

So-le'-mie, (C), the cranberry. 

Spo'-oh, (C), faded; any light color. 

Spoon, (E), a spoon. 

Suk-wal'-al, (C), a gun or musket. 

Tah-nlm, (S), to measure. 
Teh-teh, (C), to trot, as a horse. 
Te-peh, (C), quill, wing. 
Tik'-tik, (onoma), a watch. 
Til'-i-kiim-ma-ma, (C), a father. 
Toke-tie, (Kalapuya), pretty. 
To'-lakB> (Clallam), the mussel. 



Tot, (S), uncle. 

To'-to, (onoma, C), to shake, sift, win- 

To-wag-li', (C), bright; shining; light. 

Tshi'-ke, (?), directly, soon. 

Tshis, (C), cold. 

Tsisli, (onoma), in imitation of the 
sound of a grindstone. 

Tsole-pat, (Klickitat), a shot-pouch. 

Tso'-lo, (Kalapuya), to wander; to lose 
the way. 

Tuk'-wil-la, (Kalapuya), nuts; the hazel 


Wa'-ki, (C), to-morrow. 
Whim, (Wasco), to fell; to throw, in 

Yah'-hul, (C), a name. 
Yah'-kis-ilt'li, (C), sharp, cutting. 

Note— The letters (C), (E), (F), (N), 
and (S), refer to the derivation of 
words, and signify Chinook, English, 
French, Nootka, and Salish. (See ex- 
planatory notes.) Words marked (J.) 
or (onoma.) are considered to be the 
peculiar property of the Jargon, as 
having been formed either in imita- 
tion of sounds or by some casual in- 
vention. (Gibbs, Hale, Chamberlain, 
Boas, Shaw, Anderson, Pandosy, Cook, 
Jewitt, Tolmie, Dawson, St. Onge, 
Scouler, Eells, Walker, Gard, — author- 
ities.) See Pronouncing Vocabulary. 



The pronunciation is indicated by the simple system of respellingr which is 
used in Webster's International Dictionary. It employs the diacritically marked 
letters familiar in the schoolbooks of the country. "The defects of the English 
orthography are well known, but, under the circumstances, we have no choice but 
to follow it, making up for its deficiencies by the necessary explanations. In the 
phonetics of the language one point is specially interesting, both as illustrating the 
usual result of the fusion of two or more languages, and as showing one of the 
laws which must govern the formation of any international speech. As the Jargon 
is to be spoken by Englishmen and Frenchmen, and by Indians of at least a dozen 
tribes, so as to be alike easy and intelligible to all, it must admit no sound which 
cannot be readily pronounced by all. The numerous harsh Indian gutturals either 
disappear entirely, or are softened to li and k. On the other hand, the d, f, g, r, v, z, 
of the English and French become in the mouth of a Chinook t, p, ki 1, w, and s. 
The English j (dzh) is changed to ch (tsh); the French nasal n is dropped, or is 
retained without its nasal sound." — Hale. Authority used, Eells. 

a, as in far, father K 

a, as in what, not S 

a, as in hat, man jt 

a, as in law, all, lord a 

a, as in mate a 

e, as in met, then c 

e, as in meet o 

e, as in they (a, as in mate) § 

i, as in pin Y 

i, as in pine, aisle T 

i, as in pique (e, ns in meet) T 

o, as in not ^ 

o, as in note m 

o, as in do, prove, tomb; — with the sound the same as oo o 

00, as in moon, food, fool oo 

u, as in rule oo 

u, as in pull, bull, full, put ii 

u, as in but : .'fi 

oi, as in boil oi 

ou, as in out _ : ou 

sh, as in shall sh 

th, as in thin th 

th, as in then th 

g, as in gig _ g 

g, as in gem '. I; 

ng, as in sing, singer ng 

wh, as in when ." hw 

eh, as in church ch 


ABBA, Wba. 

DLY, dlt. 

ADDEDAH, a-df-da. 

DOCTIN, dsLtTn. 

AHHA, a-h'a. 

DOLLA, d»l-m. 


DUTCHMAN, diSch-mSn. 

ALKI, Sl^kT. 

EENA, 5-na. 

ALTA, SKta. 

ELIP, S^ltp. 

ATS, ats. 

ELITE, e-lt'tT. 

BEBE, be^. 

ENATI, gn^a-tt 

BURDASH, bu^dSsh. 

HAHLAKL, ha^lakL 

CALIPEEN, Hl-a-pSnr 

HAHTHAHT, hat-hKt. 

CANIM, ka-nTmr 

HAKATSHUM, hak^at-shum 

CAPO, ka-po^ 

HALO, hl-'lT5. 

CHAKCHAK, chak^chak. 

HAUL, hflL ^ 

CHAKO, cha^S. 

HEEHEE, he-he. 

CHEE, die. 







HOHHOH, h5h-h5h. 


HOOLHOOL, hpl-hol. 

CHETWOOT, chet-woot. 

HULOIMA, httl-o'i-raa. 

CHIKAMIN, chtk-a-mtn. 

HUYHUY, ho'-Y-hft-t 


HYAK, ht-ai.'' 


HYAS, ht-as.'' 


HYKWA, ht-kwa. 


IKPOOIE, tk-v^-r 


IKT, tkt. 


IKTA, tk'ta. 


IKTAS, tk^taz. 


ILLAHEE, Tl-la-h5. 


INAPOO, Tn''-a-po. 


IPSOOT, Vsftt." , 


I SICK, ts'-tk. 


ISKUM, Ts^kam. 

CHOTUB, chS-'tab. 

ITLAN, Yt^lSn. 

CHUCK, chfik. 

ITLOKUM, Tt<lo-k«m. 

CLY, Kit 

ITSWOOT, rts^wftt. 

COLE, kTJl. 

ITCHWOOT, Ttch-wftt 

COMB, kT5m. 

KAH, ka. 


KAHKAH, ka-kS. 

COOPCOOP, kpp-kflp. 


COSHO, ko-sh5. 


COURT, k5^ut. 


CULTUS, kiil-tfis. 

KAHNAWAY, ka4a-w5. 

DELATE, de-latr 

KAHPO, k^ip-'ho. 



KAHTA, ka'-la'. 



KALAKALAHMA, k*a-lak-a- 





KAMOOKS, kU^mooks; 
KAMOSUK, k-a-mS-stik. 
KAPSWALLA, kSp-swCl-la. 
KAUPY, ka-pt 
KEEKWULEE, k^-'kwu-ll 
KILAPI, kTl-a-pt 
KIMTA, kTm-ta. 
KINNYKINICK, krn<T-kfn-Tk. 
KINOOTL, kt-'dootl. 
KIWA, kt-Va. 
KIYAH, kt-ya. 
KLAH, kla. 

KLAHANIE, kla-ha-nt 
KLAHOWYA, kla-how ya. 
KLAHOWYUM, kla'-how-yum. 
KLAHWA, kla-wa. 
KLAK, klak. 
KLAKSTA, klaics-ta. 
KLALE, klal. 
KLAP, klap. 
KLAPITE, kla-ptt. 
KLASKA, kias-ka. 
KLATAWA, kmta-w^. 
KLA WHOP, kla-hw«p. 
KLEMAHUN, kl^m-a-hun. 
KLIKAMUKS, klTk-a-raiiks. 
KLILT, kmt. 

KLIMMIN, klTin-Tn. 
KLIP, kltp. 
KLISKWIS, klTs-kwTs. 
KLOHKLOH, klo-klo. 
KLONAS, klS-nSs. 

KLONE, klon. 

KLOOK, kl55k. 

KLOOTCHMAN, klfl<Jt^h-man. 

KLOSHE, klSsh. 

KO, ko. 

KOKSHUT, k»k^8hut. 

KONAWAY, kSn-a-wa. 

KOOSAH, kro^a. 

KOPET, ko-pTf. 



KULL, kSl. 

KULLAGHAN, k«I-m-han. 
KUMTUKS, k«ra-tuks. 
KUNAMOKST, kun-a-m»kst. 
KUNJIH, kuD-jr. 
KUNSIH, klin-sY. 
KWAHTA, kwa<ta. 
KWASS, kw(fs** 
KWATES, kwats. 
KWEEST, kwest. 
KWAIST, kwast. 
KWEHKWEH, kwe-kw^T. 
KWINNUM, k^n-8m. 
KWOLAN, k\^o-lKn. 
KWUNNUM, kwun-«m. 

LA CASSET, la-ka-set. 
LA CLOA, la-klo^a. 
LA GOME, la-gorn. 
LA HASH, la-hSshr 
LAKIT, lok-Tt. 
LA LAHM, la-lam^ 
LA-LANG, la-lSn^. 
LALY, la-lT. 

LA METSIN, la-rngt-sTn. 
LA MONTI, la-m(5n-tT. 
LA PEA, la-pe-a. 
LA PEEP, la-pep.'' 
LA PLASH, la-plSsb. 
LA POME, ra-p5m. 
LA POTE, la-pot 
LA TET, ra-t?t^ 
LAW, la- 
LA WEEN, la-wen. 



LE BAL, IT-bfll. 
LE BLAU, Ig-bla." 
LE COCK, lg-k5k. 
LE JAUB, le-gftb. 
LE KLEH, 15-kle/ 
LE MAH, 15412. 
LE MEL, le-mel. 
LE MOOL, Ig-mffol. 
LE MOLO, lg-mo-i5. 
LE MOOTO, le-raSS-to. 
LE PLET, IT-plgt. 
LE PWAU, rr-pwa. 
LE SAK, ir-sSk/ " 
LE WHET, le-hw^l 
LA WHIP, la-hwTp. 
LICE, Its. 
LIVER, Itv-^'S. 
LOCKIT, see Lakit. 
LO LO, lo-m. 
LOPE, lop. 
LUMMIEH, min-mt-u. 
MAHKOOK, ma-'kuk. 
MAHSH, mash. 
MALIEH, mSl-t-S. 
MAMA, nfa-ma. 
MAMOOK, rna-muk. 
MESACHIE, me-s5c1i-T. 
MESIKA, mS-st-'^a. 
MIKA, mT-ka. 
MIMALOOSE, mim-a-loos. 
MITLITE, mTt-ltt. ' 
MITWHIT, mIt-whTt. 
MOKST, mJJkst. 
MOOLACK, moo'^luk, 
MUCKAMUCK, mfilc-a-muk. 
NA, na. 
NAH, na. 
NAHA, na-hK. 
NANITCH, n^n'Tch. 
NAWITKA, na-wTt-kS. 
NESIKA, n§-^T-ka. 
NIKA, nt-Va. 
OKOKE, ?<k5k. 
OLALLIE, o-lal-T. 



OLO, o^-m. 



OPOOTS, o4>oots. 

PAHTL, patl. 

PAHTLUM, pat^iura. 

PAPA, pa-pa. 

PAPAH, paVa. 

PASEESIE, pa-se-st 

PASIOOKS, pa-^-ooks. 

PE, pe. 

PELTON, p^l^tun. 

PI AH, pt-a. 

PIL, pTl. 

PILPIL, ptl^ptl. 

PISH, pTsh. ^ 

PIUPIU, p5-u-pe-u 

PUSSPUSS, pTsli-pTsh. 

POH, pC. 

POLAKLIE, p5-lak-lT. 

POLALLIE, po-'mi-T. 

POTLATCH, pSt^lacli. 

PUKPUK, pSk^puk. 

SAGHALIE, sbh-ha-lT. 

SAKOLLEKS, sa-kiil-gks. 

SALLAL, sSl-al^ 

SALMON, sSm-un. 

SAPOLIL, sS'p-S-ltl. 

SEAHHOST, se-a-host. 

SEAHPO, 85-a-po. 

SHUGA, shu%a. 

SI AH, st-a.'' 

SIKHS, stks. 

SHIKHS, shlks. 

SINAMOKST, sm<a-raokst. 

SISKIYOU, sTs<kT-y5o. 

SISTER, sts'-tti. 
. SIWASH, st-w8sh. 

SKOOKUM, skoo-kum. 
' SLAHAL, sla-hal 

SNASS, snas. 

SNOW, sn5. 

SOLLEKS, stif-mks. 

SOPENA, s5-pe-na. 

SPOSE, spoz. 

STOCKEN, st5ien. 

STOTEKIN, stot-kTn. 




STUTCHUN, stiic^-un. 
TAGHUM, tH-hum. 
TAHTLUM, tot^ltim. 
TAMAHNOUS, ta-raa-no-us. 
TAMOLITSH, ta-mo-lTeh. 
TANSE, tans. 
TENAS, t^n-as. 
THOUSAND, thow-zSnd. 
TIKEGH, tTi^-f. 
TIKTIK, ttk-tTk. 
TILIKUM, m^a-kiim. 
TILL, ffl. 
TINTIN, tTn-tYn. 
T'KOPE, T'kop. 
TL'KOPE, Tl'kSp. 
TOMOLLA, t3-t6ol-la. 

TSEEPIE, tse-'^pT. 
TSOLO, tiss-so-lo. 
TUKAMONUK, tuk-a-mo-nuk. 

TUMTUM, tum^ttfm. 
TUMWATA, tum-wa-tu. 
TUPSO, tup-s?5. 
TYEE, tr-?/ 
TZUM, tzum. 
WAKE, wak. 
WAPATO, wap^a-to. 
WAUM, w^m. 
WAWA, wa'-wa- 
WAYHUT,"see Ooakut. 
WEGHT, w)^kt. 
WHIM, hwTm: 
WHISKEY, hwYs-kY. 
WINAPIE, wTn^a-pr 
YAHWA, ya-wa. 
YAHKA, ya^ka. 
YAKA, ya-ka. 
YAKSO, yak4o. 
YAKWAHTIN, ya-kwa-tlb. 
YOUTL, yotl. 
YOUTLKUT, yotl-kut. 
YUKWA, yuk-Va. 
YAHKWA, ya^kwa. 

Note — "With the spelling in use I have 
learned that it is useless for any person 
who has not heard a Chinook word used, 
to try to give its pronunciation. The 
accented syllable is marked. It must 
not be supposed, however, that the pro- 
nunciation I have given is the only cor- 
rect one; as already stated, there are 
often different ways of pronouncing the 
same word in different localities. The 

other authors use the letters much as 
they are used in English, which really 
means that their sounds, especially those 
of the vowels, cannot be easily under- 
stood until the person hears them sound- 
ed by some one who understands their 
pronunciation." Authority: Myron 

Eells, D. D. See note under Kalakala, 
main vocabulary. — Hale. 


Abase, mamook keekwulee. 

Abdomen, yakwahtin; kwahtin. 

Abed, kopa bed. 

Abide, mitlite. 

Abject, cultus . 

Able, skookum. 

Aboard, kopa boat, (or ship or canim). 

Abolisb, mamook halo. 

Aborigrines, siwash. 

Abound, hiyu mitlite. 

About, wake siah kopa. 

Above, saghalie. 

Abroad, klahanie. 

Abscond, kapswalla klatawa; ipsoot klat- 

Absent, halo mitlite. 

Absolve, mamook stoh; mamook mahsh. 
Absurd, pelton; wake delate. 
Accept, iskum. 
Accident, nika tumtum halo yaka chako 

Accompany, klatawa kunamokst; chako 

Accomplice, yaka mamook mesachie 

Accomplish, mamook. 
Accordinsr to, kopa 
Accumulate, iskum hiyu. 
Accurate, delate. 
Achieve, mamook. 
Acknowledgfe, wawa nawitka. 
Acorns, kahnaway. 
Acquaint, mamook kumtuks. 
Acquire, iskum. 
Across, enati; inati. 
Act, Action, mamook. 
Active, delate halo lazy. , 
Add, mahsh kunamokst. 
Adjoin, wake siah kopa. 
Admiration, hwah. 
Admire, mitlite kloshe tumtum kopa. 
Admonish, potlatch kloshe wawa. 
Adore, mitlite delate kloshe tumtum 

kopa; atole. 
Adorn, mamook kloshe. 
Adrift, cultus mitlite kopa chuck. 
Adulterate, mamook mesachie; mahsh 

mesachie kunamokst. 
Adulterer, man yaka kumtuks kapswalla 

Adultress, klootchman yaka kumtuks 

kapswalla man. 
Advice, Advise, cultus potlatch tumtum. 
Afar, siah. 
Affable, kloshe. 
Afarm, wawa delate. 
Afflict, mamook trouble; mamook sick 

Afoot, kopa lapea. 
Afraid, kwass. 
After, Afterwards, kimta, 
ARtiin, weght. 
Ag'ed, oleman. 
Asrsrressor, yaka mamook mesachie elip. 

Agirde, tumtum kunamokst. 

Agrriculture, mamook illahee. 

Agrriculturist, illahee man. 

Agroujid, kopa illahee. 

Ague, colesick. 

Ah! (Admiration), wah! hah! 

Ah! (In pain), anah. 

Ahead, elip. 

Aid, Help, elan. 

Alarm, mamook kwass. 

Alike, kahkwa. 

Alive, mitlite wind. 

All, konaway. 

Almighty, the, Saghalie tyee. 

Almost, wake siah. 

Alms, elahan, elann. 

Alms, to give, mamook klahowiam, or 
klahowya; potlatch dolla. 

Aloft, kopa saghalie. 

Alone, kopet ikt. 

Also, weght. 

Alter, mamook huloima. 

Although, keschi. 

Always, kwahnesum. 

Am, mitlite is sometimes used; some- 
times no word is used. 

Amass, isskum hiyu. 

Ambiguous, mokst wawa. 

Ambition, hyas tikegh. 

Amen, kloshe kahkwa. 

American, Boston. 

Amid, Among, kunamokst; katsuk. 

Amount, konoway. 

Amuse, mamook heehee. 

Amusement, heehee. 

Ancient, hyas ahnkuttie. 

And, pee; pe. 

Anew, chee. 

Angel, lesash; tamahnous. 

Anger, Angry, solleks. 

Angler, pish man. 

Annual, ikt cole ikt cole. 

Another, huloima. 

Answer, kilapie wawa. 

Antediluvian, elip kopa hyas chuck kopa 
Noah yaka time. 

Anticipate, mamook tumtum elip. 

Anus, opoots. 

Anxious, hyas tikegh. 

Any, klaksta. 

Apart, ikt yahwa, ikt yahwa. 

Apostle, leplet. 

Appeal, wawa kopa elip hyas court. 

Appear, chako kah (nika) nanitch. 

Apple, lepome; apple. 

Apply, (if in words) wawa; (if of things) 

Approve, (nika) tumtum kahkwa. 

Approach, chako wake siah. 

Apron, kehsu; kisu. 

Arbutus uva ursi, lahb. 

Archangel, tyee lesash. 

Archbishop, tyee leplet. 

Archfiend, tyee kopa mesachie; tyee 



Archipelag-o, kah hiyu ailand mitlite. 
Arctic, kah delate hiyu cole mitlite. 
Ardent, ?vaum tumtum. 
Argnie, hiyu wawa. 
Arise, mitwit; get up. 
Arithmetic, book yaka mamook kumtuks 

nesika kopa kwunnum; mamook tzum. 
Arm, (n.) lemah; (v.) iskum musket; 

potlatch musket. 
Army, hiyu sojers. 

PAroimd, wake siah kopa. 
Arouse, mamook get up. 
Arrest, mamook haul; mamook kow. 
Arrive, Arrive at, ko; chako; klap. 
Arrow, kalitan; stick kalitan. 
Ascend, klatawa saghalie. 
Ash, isick stick. 
Ask, wawa. 
Asleep, moosum. 
Assaiat, pight. 
Assemble, chako kunamokst. 
As, kahkwa. 
As if, kahkwa spose. 
Assent, wawa, nawitka. 
Assess, mamook tzum iktas. 
Assessor, tyee kopa mamook tzum illahee 
Assistance, elahan; help. 
At, kopa. 
Atheist, man yaka wawa halo saghalie 

tyee mitlite. 
Attack, pight elip. 
Attend, klatawa. 
Attire, iktas. 

Auhum, sitkum klale; sitkum pil. 
Audacious, skookum tumtum. 
Audience, hiyu tillikums kopa house. 
Argument, mamook hiyu; mamook hyas. 
Aunt, kwalh; papa or mama yaka ats; 

tant; aunt. 
Authentic, delate. 
Autumn, tenas cole illahe. 
Avaunt, klatawa. 
Aver, wawa delate. 
Averse, halo tikegh. 
Avidity, hyas tikegh. 
Avoid, klatawa kopa huloima ooahut. 
Awake, halo moosum; halo sleep. 
Away, siah. 
Awe, kwass. 

Awl, shoes keepwot, or kipuet. 
Axe, lahash. 
Aye, nawitka. 

Bahy, tenas. 

Bad, mesahchie; peshuk. 

Bad Spirit, mesachie tumtum (if in a 
person); mesachie tamahnous (if an- 
other spirit). 

Baer, lesak. 

Ball, lebal. 

Barg-ain, mahkook; huyhuy. 

Bark, stickskin. 

Barley, lashey; lareh. 

Barrel, tamolitsh. 

Basin, ketling. 

Basket, opekwan; basket. 

Bat, polakle kulakula. 

Battle, pight. 

Bath, mamook wash. 

Bo, sometimes mitlite is used, and some- 
times no word is used. 

Be Still, kopet wawa. 

Beach, polalle illahe; naults. 

Beads, kamosuk. 

Bear (black), itchwoot; chetwoot; Its- 

Bear (grizzly), slam itchwoot. 

Bear, (v.) lolo. 

Beard, tupso or yakso kopa seahost. 

Bearer, man yaka kumtuks lolo. 

Beat, to, kokshut; mamook kokshut. 

Beautiful, kloshe. 

Beaver, eena. 

Becalm, halo wind. 

Because, kahkwa; kehwa. 

Become, to, chakko. 

Become hard, chahko kull. (For other 
connections of become see chako, in 
Chinook, English part). 

Bed, bed. 

Bed Quilt, tzum pasessie. 

Beef, itlwillie. 

Before, elip. 

Beg", skookum wawa. 

Begin, chee mamook; mamook elip. 

Beg-one, klatawa. 

Behave, mamook kloshe. 

Behind, kimta. 

Behold, nah; nanitch. 

Believe, iskum wawa; iskum kopa tum- 

Bell, tintin; dingding; (ring the bell, 
mamook tintin). 

Beloved, kloshe; kloshe kopa tumtum. 

Belle, kloshe tenas klootchman. 

Belly, yakwahtin. 

Below, keekwulee. 

Belt, lasanjel. 

Beneath, keekwulee. 

Benefit (v.), mamook kloshe. 

Berries, olallie; olillie. 

Beside, Besides, kunamokst. 

Best, elip kloshe kopa konoway. 

Better, elip kloshe. 

Between, kunamokst; katsuk; potsuk. 

Beyond, yahwa. 

Bible, saghalie tyee yaka book. 

Big-, hyas. 

Bird, kallakala; kulakula. 

Biscuit, lebiskwee, or labisquee. 

Bit, or dime, bit. 

Bite, muckamuck. 

Bitter, klihl, or klile; mesachie. 

Black, klale. 

Blackberries, klale olallie; klikamuks. 

Blackbirds, klale tenas kalakala. 

Blackfish, kahkwa klale. 

Blanket, paseesie. 

Bleed, mamook pilpil. 

Bless, wawa kloshe wawa. 

Blessing-, kloshe wawa. 

Blind, halo seahost; halo nanitch. 

Blood, pilpil. 

Blow, (V.) wind chako; hiyu wind. 

Blow out, mamook poh. 

Blue (lig-ht), spooh. 

Blue (dark), klale. 



Blnnder, to, tseepie. 

Blusli, chako pil kopa yaka seahost. 

Boar, man cosho. 

Board, la plash. 

Boast, hyas wawa; skookum wawa. 

Boat, boat. 

Bobtailed (a bob-tailed horse), siskiyou. 

Boil, to, (v.) liplip; mamook liplip. 

Bold, Boldness, skookum tumtum; halo 

Bone, stone. 

Boots, stick shoes. 

Bore, to, mamook thalwhop; mamook 

Borrow, to, ayahwhul; iskum dolla; alki 

Bosom (female), totoosh; yakwahtin. 

Boss, tyee. 

Both, kunamoxt; mokst. 

Bottle, labooti; labotai. 

Bow, opitlkegh; stick musket. 

Bow (of boat), nose. 

Bowl, ooskan; uskan. 

Box, la casett; la kassett. 

Boy, tenas man. 

Bracelet, klikwallle; kweokweo. 

Brass, pil chikamin; klikwallie. 

Brave, skookum tumtum. 

Bread, le pan; sapolil; piah sappolil. 

Break, to, kokshut; mamook kokshut; 
mamook klimmin. 

Breakfast, muckamuck kopa tenas sun. 

Breasts, totoosh. 

Breath, wind. 

Breech Clout, opoots sill; opoots sail. 

Bride, klootchman yaka chee malieh. 

Bridegroom, man yaka chee malieh. 

Bridle, la bleed. 

Brig-ht, towagh, or tewagh. 

Bring", to, lolo; mamook chahco; newah. 

Broad, klukulh. 

Broken leg-gfed, kokshut lapea. 

Broken, kokshut. 

Brook, tenas chuck; tenas cooley chuck. 

Broom, bloom. 

Brother, ow. 

Brother, kahpho, or elip ow, if elder 
than the speaker; kimta pw, or ow, if 
younger. Male cousins the same. 

Brother-in-law, ats yaka man; klootch- 
man yaka ow; ekkeh. 

Brown, sitkum klale; tenas klale; klale. 

Buck, man mowitch. 

Bucket, tamolitsh. 

Buffalo, moosmoos; wild moosmoos. 

Build, mamook house. 

Builder, la plash man. 

Bull, man moosmoos. 

Bullet, le bal; kalitan; musket yaka ball. 

Bundle, kow; iktas. 

Bungler, man yaka cultus mamook. 

Bum, mamook piah. 

Burst, kokshut. 

Bury, mahsh kopa illahee. 

But, pe; pee. 

Butcher, man yaka kumtuks mamook 
mimoluse moosmoos. 

Butter, totoosh gleese; totoosh lakles. 

Buttons, chilchil: tsiltsil. 

Buy, to, mahkook. 

By, wake siah kopa; kopa. 
By-and-by, winapie; alki. 

Calf, tenas moosmoos. 

Calico, tzum sail; sail. 

Call, to, wawa. 

Calm, halo wind. 

Calve, mahsh tenas. 

Can, skookum kopa. 

Candle, la shandel; glease piah. 

Cannot, halo skookum kopa; howkwutl. 

Canoe, canim. 

Cap, seahpo. 

Capable, skookum kopa; skookum tum- 

Capsize, keelapie; kilapie. 

Captive, elite. 

Capture, mamook kow. 

Car, (B. B.), piah chickchick. 

Careful, kloshe nanitch. 

Careless, kultus; halo kloshe nanitch. 

Carpenter, la plash man. 

Carrot, la calat. 

Carry, to, lolo. 

Cart, chikchik; tsiktsik. 

Carve, mamook cut. 

Cascade, tumwata. 

Cash, dolla; chikamin. 

Cask, tamolitsh. 

Cast, mahsh. 

Castrate, to, mahsh stone. 

Cat, pusspuss; pishpish. 

Cataract, tumwater. 

Catch, iskum; mamook kwotl. 

Cautious, (to he), kloshe nanitch. 

Cease, kopet. 

Cedar, canim stick; lametsin stick; kpai; 
kalakwahtie stick. 

Cedar Bark (inside), kalakwahtie. 

Celestial, kopa saghalie. 

Certain, delate. 

Cattle, moosmoos. 

Certainly, nawitka. 

Chain, lashen; chikamin lope. 

Chair, la shase. 

Chance, nika tumtum halo yaka chako 

Chang'e, huyhuy; mamook huyhuy. 

Characters, tzum. 

Cheap, wake hyas mahkook. 

Cheat, to, lalah; mamook pelton. 

Cheated, (I am), nika chako pelton. 

Cheeks, seahost; capala. 

Cheer, hiyu kloshe wawa. 

Chicken, la pool. 

Chief, tyee. 

Child, tenas. 

Chilly, tenas cole. 

Choose, tikegh; elip tikegh. 

Christmas, hyas Sunday; kllsmes. 

Clams, ona; lukutchee; lakwitchee; 
clams; (smetocks, the large kind). 

Clay, illahee. 

Clean, (adj.) halo illahee; (n.) mamook 

Clear up, to, chako klah. 

Clerk, tzum man. 

Climb, klatawa saghalie. 

Close, (V.) mamook ikpoole. 




Cloth, (cotton), sail. 

Clothes, iktas. 

Clouds, smoke; smoke kopa saghalie; 
cultus smoke. 

Coast, illahee wake siah kopa chuck. 

Coat, capo; kapo. 

Coffee, kaupy. 

Cold, cole. 

Color, tzum; chym. 

Comb, (n.) comb. 

Comb, to, (v.) mamook comb. 

Come, to, chahko; newah. 

Come out of the water, chako klahanie 
kopa chuck. 

Com^maud, (v.) mahsh wawa; (n.) law. 

Com.mandments, saghalie tyee law. 

Commence, mamook begin; chee mamook. 

Common, Icloshe kopa konoway; cultus. 

Communion, Jesus yaka muckamuck. 

Complete, mamook kopet. 

Conceal, ipsoot. 

Conceive, klap tenas. 

Conceive, (in mind) mamqok tumtum. 

Concur, (I), (nika) tumtum kahkwa. 

Confess, to, yiem; wawa. 

Confession, to go to, kofes; kopes. Cha- 
chas bilalam, or milalam (holy talk). 

Confirmation, lakonfirmation; kopil masio 

Confine, mamook kow. 

Confirm, mamook delate. 

Confirmed (pas.), chako delate. 

Confirmation, lakonfirmation; kopli masio 

Congrregate, chako, or klatawa kunamokst 

Conjurer, si wash doctin; tamahnous man. 

Conjuring, tamahnous; mamook tamah- 

Consecrate, potlatch kopa saghalie tyee. 

Contented, mitlite kloshe tumtum. 

Contrite, cly tumtum; sick tumtum. 

Control, tolo. 

Conversation, Converse, wawa. 

Convince, tolo. 

Cook, to, mamook piah; mamook piah 

Cooked, (pas.) chako piah. 

Copper, pil chikamin. 

Copy, mamook tzum. 

Cord, tenas lope; lope. 

Cordially, kloshe tumtum. 

Cork, (v.) ikpooie. 

Corn, esalth. 

Corral, kullagh; kullaghan. 

Correct, delate. 

Cost, (how much) kunjih dolla? 

Cotton goods, sail. 

Cougar, hyas pishpish. 

Cough, hohhoh. 

Counsel, cultus potlatch tumtum. 

Count, mamook kwunnun; mamook kun- 
jih; mamook tahnin. 

Country, illahee. 

Couple, mokst. 

Courage, skookum tumtum. 

Cousin, (see brother and sister.) (Eng- 
lish, idem.) 

Cover, (V.) mahsh ikta kopa haghalie. 

Covet, tikegh kapswalla. 

Cow, klootchman moosmoos. 

Coward, halo skookum tumtum; kwass 

Coyote, talapus. 

Crahapple, powitsh; slwash apple. 

Crack, tsugh. 

Cranberry, solemie; swamp olallie; pil 

olallie; siwash isalk. 
Crazy, pelton; clazy; pelton scotty. 
Cream, kloshe totoosh. 
Cream-colored, le clem. 
Creator, saghalie tyee. 
Creek, tenas chuck. 
Creep, tenas cooley. 
Cricket, (large), mesachie cultus kala- 

kala; mesachie cultus sopena. 
Crooked, kiwa: tseepie; clocked; wake 

delate; hanlkek. 
Cross, (n.) la cloa. 
Crow, kahkah. 
Crowd, hiyu tillikums. 
Cry, to, cly. 

Cultivate, mamook kloshe. 
Cup, ooskan; cup; lepot. 
Cure, mamook kloshe. 
Cured, chako kloshe. 
Curly, hunlkih. 
Currant, pil olallie; culant. 
Currency, papah dolla. 
Curse, (n.) mesachie wawa. 
Curse, (V.) wawa mesachie. 
Cut, to, tlkope; mamook cut. 

Dance, to, tanse. 

Danger, mesachie mitlite. 

Dark, darkness, polaklie. 

Darken, mamook polaklie. 

Dash, (v.) mahsh. 

Daughter, tenas klootchman. 

Dawn, delate tenas sun; chee chako 

Dazzle, hiyu skookum light; kahkwa halo 
nika nanitsh. 

Dead, memaloost; mimoluse; mahsh kon- 
oway yaka wind; yaka wind chako 

Deadness, kahkwa mimoluse. 

Deaf, ikpooie kwollan; halo kwolan. 

Deafen, mamook halo kwolan. 

Deaf mute, halo kwolan halo wawa. 

Death, mimoluse. 

Death "bed, bed kah yaka mimoluse. 

Drar, (expensive), hyas mahkook. 

Dear, (loved), kloshe. 

Death warrant, papah yaka wawa, na- 
witka yaka mimoluse. 

Debate, pight wawa. 

Debility, halo skookum; wake siah sick. 

Decay, chako cultus; chako mimoluse; 
chako rotten. 

Deceit, kliminawhit wawa. 

Deceive, wawa kliminawhit mamook 

Deceiver, yaka kumtuks wawa klimina- 

Decide, mamook tumtum; klap tumtum. 

Decision, tumtum. 

Decline, wawa halo. 

Deed, mamook. 

Deep, klip; hyas keekwulee. 

Deer, mowitsh. 

Defeat, (v.) tolo. 



Defend, kloshe nanltch. 
Defer, mamook alki; mamook byby. 
Deficient, wake hiyu. 
Definite, delate. 
Deformed, wake delate. 
Delig-ht, kloshe tumtum. 
Delig-hted, mitlite or chako kloshe tum- 
Delirious, huloima latet; kahkwa clazy. 
Demand, wawa; skookum wawa. 
Demon, skookum; lejaub; kahkwa lejaub; 

mesachie tamahnous. 
Deny, Denial, wawa halo. 
Dense, hiyu. 
Dentist, doctin kopa teeth; doctin kopa 

Depart, klatawa. 
Descend, klatawa keekwulee. 
Describe, mamook kumtuks. 
Desert, (n.) illahee kah halo ikta mitlite. 
Desert, (v.) kapswalla klataway; mahsh. 
Devil, diaub; yaub; lejaub. 
Diabolical, kahkwa lejaub. 
Dialect, lalang. 
Dialog-ue, ikt man yaka wawa, huloima 

man yaka wawa, laly kahkwa. 
Did, mamook. 
Die, mimoluse; mahsh konoway yaka 

Differ, huloima tumtum. 
Different, Difference, huloima. 
Difacult, kull. 
Dig*, to, mamook illahee; mamook kok- 

shut illahee. 
Dig" a liole, mamook hole; mamook 

Dilute, mahsh chuck kunamokst. 
Dime, bit, or mit. 
Dimension, kunjih hyas. 
Dine, Dinner, muckamuck kopa sitkum 

Direct, delate. 

Directly, alki; winapie; tshike. 
Dirty, allihee mitlite; hyas humm. 
Disagree, halo tumtum kahkwa. 
Disappoint, mamook pelton. 
Disbelieve, halo tumtum kahkwa. 
Disappear, chako halo. 
Discard, Discharsre, mahsh. 
Discover, elip nanitch. 
Dishonest, kumtuks kapswalla. 
DisUke, halo tikegh. 

Disobey, halo iskum wawa; mahsh wawa. 
Disrelish, halo tikegh muckamuck. 
Dissent, huloima tumtum. 
Distance, (what), kunjih siah. 
Distant, siah. 
Distinfiruish, nanitch. 
Distress, klahowya tumtum; klahowya. 
Distrust, kwass. 

Dive, klatawa keekwulee kopa chuck. 
Diverse, huloima. 
Divine, kahkwa saghalie tyee. 
Doctor, doctin. 
Doctress, klootchman doctin. 
Dodge, hyak klatawa; klatawa yahwa 

Dog", kamooks. 

Dollar, dolla, or tahla; chikamln. 
Do, mamook. 

Donation, cultus potlatch. 

Door, la pote. 

Double, mokst. 

Double minded, mokst tumtum. 

Doubt, halo delate kumtuks. 

Down, (adj.) keekwulee; whim. 

Down, (n.), kalakala tupso. 

Downcast, sick tumtum. 

Down Hill, keekwulee. 

Downrig-ht, delate. 

Down stream, mimie; cooley chuck. 

DoxolosTYi mahsie kopa saghalie tyee. 

Dozen, tahtlum pe mokst. 

Drab, tenas klale, tenas tkope. 

Drag-, Draw, haul. 

Drawback, mamook haul kimta. 

Drawers, keekwulee sakolleks. . 

Dread, kwass. 

Dream, dleam; nanitch kopa moosum; 

moosum nanitch. 
Dreary, cultus. 
Drench, mahsh kopa chuck; mahsh chuck 

Drenched, (pas.), mitlite hiyu chuck; 

hiyu chuck mitlite kopa. 
Dress, klootchman coat. 
Drink, to, muckamuck; muckamuck 

chuck or kaupy; or whiskey, etc., as 

the case may be. 
Drinkable, kloshe kopa muckamuck. 
Drip, chuck klatawa. 
Drive, mamook kishkish. 
Drizzle, tenas snass. 
Drown, mimoluse kopa chuck. 
Drowsy, tikegh moosum; tikegh sleep. 
Drug*, lametsin. 
Drum, (Indian), pompon. 
Drtmk, (adj.), pahtlum; dlunk. 
Drunk, (v.), chako pahtlum. 
Drunkard, pahtlum man; man kwanesum 

Dry, Dryness, dly; dely. 
Dual, mokst. 
Dubious, mokst tumtum. 
Duck, (Mallard), hahlhahl; kwehkweh; 

Ducking*, mahsh kopa chuck; klatawa 

kopa chuck. 
Dug** mamook dig. 

Dull, halo tumtum; wake siah halo latet. 
Duly, delate. 

Dumb, wake wawa; halo wawa. 
During*, kopa. 
Durst, skookum tumtum. 
Dust, polallie; tenas illahee; klimmin 

klimmin illahee. 
Dwell, mitlite. 
Dye, (v.), mamook tzum. 
Dying*, wake siah mimoluse. 
Dyeing*, mamook tzum. 

Eag'er, hyas tikegh. 

Each, ikt ikt. 

Eag-le, chakchak. 

Ear, kwolann. 

Early, tenas sun. 

Earnest, skookum tumtum. 

Earn, to, tolo. 

Earth, illahie. 



Zast, kah sun yaka chako. 

Easter, pak; paska. 

Easy, halo kull. 

Eat, to, muckamuck. 

Eatable, kloshe kopa muckamuck. 

Ebb tide, chuck yaka klatawa. 

Eccentric, huloima. 

Eclipse, sun (or moon), yaka chako 

Eddy, kah chuck klatawa saghalle. 
Edify, mamook kumtuks. 
Editor, tzum (or tyee) man kopa news- 
Educate, mamook kumtuks. 
Effect, (V.) mamook. 
Effects, (n.) Iktas. 
Effeminate, kahkwa klootchman. 
Ef&cient, skookum; kloshe. 
Eg-g*, lesap; lesep; hen olallie. 
Eight, stotekin; kwinnum pe klone; 

Eig'hteen, tahtlum pe stotekin. 
Eig-hty, stotekin tahtlum. 
Eig"lit hundred, stotekin tukamonuk. 
Either — or, klonasklonas. 
Eject, mahsh klahanie. 
Elder, elip. 
Elder brother, kahpo. 
Elesrant, hyas kloshe. 
Elevate, mamook saghalie. 
Elevated, (pas.), chako. (saghalle, or 

klatawa saghalie, as the case may be, 

whether speaking of self or another. 
Elk, moolock; mooluk. 
Eloquent, kumtuks wawa. 
Else, huloima. 
Elude, ipsoot klatawa. 
Embark, klatawa kopa canim; boat or 

Emblem, kahkwa picture. 
Embrace, iskum kopa lemah. 
Emetic, lametsin yaka skookum kopa 

help mika mahsh mika muckamuck. 
Emotion, cly tumtum; kahkwa cly. 
Employer, tyee; boss. 
Empty, halo ikta mitlite. 
Enact, mam.ook. 
Encircle, ikt yahwa, ikt yahwa, ikt yah- 

wa, pe mamook kow. 
Enclose, mamook keekwnlee. 
Enclosure, Kullaghan; Kullagh; pense. 
End, opoots. 

Endeavor, tikegh mamook. 
Endless, kwanesum. 
Endure, kwanesum mamook; kwanesum 

Enemy, solleks tillikum; mesachie tilli- 

Energy, skookum mamook. 
England, King George illahee. 
Eng-lish, Eng-lishman, King Chautsh; 

King George tillikum. 
Engrave, mamook tzum. 
En.ioy, mitlite kloshe tumtum. 
Enlarge, mamook hyas. 
Enough, kopet hiyu; hiyu; kopet. 
Enquire, wawa; ask; tikegh kumtuks. 
Enra<red, solleks. 
Enslave, mamook elite. 
Enslaved, (pas.) chako elite. 

Enter, klatawa keekwulee, klatawa in- 

Entertain, (as a guest), kloshe manltch. 

Entire, konoway. 

Entrails, kiyagh; guts; keekwulee yak- 
wahtin kaiah. 

Entrap, iskum kopa trap. 

Enumerate, mamook kunjih; mamook 

Envelope, (n.), klahanie papeh. 

Envelope, (v.), mamook kow. 

Epilepsy, sick kahkwa clazy. 

Equal, kahkwa. 

Equity, delate mamook. 

Erect, mitwhit; delate. 

Escape, chako klahanie (for first or sec- 
ond persons); klatawa klahanie (for 
third person); klatawa. 

Escort, (V.) klatawa kunamokst pe 
kloshe nanitch. 

Espy, nanitch. 

Estate, iktas pe illahee kopa mimoluse 
man or klootchman; mimoluse man or 
klootchman yaka iktas pe illahee. 

Estimate, (n.), tumtum. 

Estimate, (v.), mamook tumtum. 

Eternal, kwanesum. 

Ethnology, kumtuks kopa tlllikums; 
kumtuks kopa siwash. 

Eulo?ize, wawa kloshe wawa. 

Evacuate, mamook halo; konoway kla- 
tawa klahanie. 

Eve, tenas polaklie. 

Even, konaway kahkwa; kloshe. 

Evcnin^r, tenas polaklie. 

Ever, Everlasting*, kwanesum. 

Every, konaway. 

Everywhere, konaway kah. 

Evict, mash klahanie. 

Evil, mesachie. 

Exact, delate. 

Eza^^g-erate, wake siah kliminawhit. 

Ezalt, mamook saghalie; mamook hyas. 

Exalted, (pas.), chako saghalie; klatawa 
saghalie; chako hyas. 

Examine, delate nanitch. 

Exceed, chako elip hiyu. 

Excel, elip kloshe. 

Excellent, hyas kloshe. 

Except, (prep.), kopet. 

Excess, elip hiyu. 

Excbang'e, huyhuy. 

Excito, mamook hyas yaka tumtum. 

Exclaim, Exclamation, skookum wawa; 
wa v'a. 

Exclude, Excommunicate, mahsh klah- 

Excuse, mamook klahowya. 

Execute, mamook mimoluse. 

Exercise, Exert, mamook. 

Exhale, mahsh wind. 

Eshaust, mamook till. 

Exhausted, (pas.t. chako delate till; 
wake siah mimoluse kopa till. 

Exhort, skookum wawa; wawa skookum. 

Exile, (v). or 

Expatriate, mahsh klahanie kopa yaka 

Exist, mitlite. 

Expedite, mamook hyak. 



Expel, mahsh. 

Expend, pay; potlatch. 

Expert, delate yaka kumtuks. 

Expire, mimoluse; mahsh konoway yaka 

Explain, mamook kumtuks. 
Explore, klatawa pe nanitch. 
Express, (v.), wawa. 
Exquisite, delate kloshe. 
Extend, mamook hyas. 
Extended, (pas.), chako hyas. 
Extensive, hyas. 
Exterior, klahanie. 
Exterminate, Extingfuisli, mamook halo; 

Extol, potlatch hyas kloshe wawa. 
Extraordinary, hyas huloima. 
Extravagant, cultus mahkook iktas. 
Extreme unction, exstlem oksio. 
Eye, Eyeball, seahost; eye. 
Eyelash, skin kopa eye. 
Eyewater, lametsin kopa seahost. 
Eyewitness, man yaka delate nanitch. 

Fable, wake delate wawa. 
Fabric, iktas. 
Face, seahhost. 
Facility, halo kull. 
Fact, delate wawa. 
Fade, chako spooh. 
Faded, spooh. 
Fag'g'ed, chako till. 
Fair, kloshe. 

Fall, fall down; mamook whim. 
False, or 

Falsehood, kliminawhit; tseepie. 
Fame, hyas nem. 
Family, tillikums. 

Famish, wake siah mimoluse kopa olo. 
Far, siah. 
Farm, illahee. 
Farther, clip siah. 
Farthest, elip siah kopa konoway. 
Fast, (tight), kwult; hyas kull. 
Fast, (quick), hyak. 
Fasten, mamook kow. 
Fat, glease. 
Father, papa. 
Fathom, itlan. 
PatifiTue, till. 
Fatten, mamook glease. 
Fault, wake delate mamook. 
Favor, kloshe tumtum. 
Fawn, tenas mowitch; mo witch yaka 

Fear, kwass. 
Fearless, halo kwass. 
Feast, muckamuck; hiyu muckamuck. 
Feather, kalakala yaka tupso. 
Feeble, wake skookum; halo skookum. 
Feed, potlatch muckamuck. 
Feel, (with hand), kumtuks kopa lemah. 
Feel, (with heart), feick tumtum. 
Feet, lapea. 

Fell, to, (as a tree), mamook whim. 
Fellow, tillikum. 
Female, klootchman. 
Ferment, kahkwa liplip; chako waum. 
Fence, kullagh; kullahan; pence. 

Ferocious, hyas tikegh pight; delate 
kumtuks pight. 

Fervent, Fervor, waum tumtum. 

Fester, chako sick, pe chako hyas. 

Festival, hyas kloshe time; hiyu mucka- 

Fetch, to, lolo; mamook chako. 

Fever, waum sick. 

Fever and Ague, cole sick, waum sick. 

Few, wake hiyu; tenas. 

Fib, kliminawhit. 

Fiction, wake delate wawa. 

Field, illahee. 

Fiend, mesachie tamahnous. 

Fierce, hyas tikegh pight. 

Fifteen, tahtlum pe kwinnum. 

Fiity, kwinnum tahtlum. 

Figrht, to, mamook solleks; piglit; ma- 
mook pukpuk. 

Figfht, (with fists), mamook pukpuk. 

Figoired, (as calico), tzum. 

File, la leem. 

Fill, to, mamook pahtl. 

Filthy, mesachie; humm; cultus. 

Fin, pish yaka lemah. 

Find, to, klap. 

Fine, (adj.), kloshe. 

Fine, (v.), mamook fine. 

Fine, (n.), fine. 

Fing-ers, le doo; lemah. 

Fing-er ring*, kweokweo. 

Finish, mamook kopet. 

Fir, moola stick. 

Fire, piah; olapitski. 

Fireplace, kah piah mitlite. 

Firm, skookum. 

First, elip. 

First bom, elip tenas. 

Fish, pish. 

Fisherman, pishman. 

Fishery, kah pish mitlite; kah iskum 

Fishhook, pishhook; ikkik. 

Fishline, pish lope. 

Flshrod, pish stick. 

Fishy, kahkwa pish. 

Fists, lemah kahkwa (showing how). 

Fit, kahkwa clazy. 

Five, kwinnum. 

Five hundred, kwinnum tukamonuk. 

Fix, mamook kloshe. 

Flag*, sail; flag; hyas Sunday sail. 

Flea, sopen inapoo; chotub. 

Flesh, itlwillie; meat. 

Flies, tenas kalakala; lemosh. 

Flimsy, wake skookum. 

Fling-, mahsh. 

Flint, kilitsut. 

Float, mitlite saghalie kopa chuck. 

Flock, hiyu sheep, or kalakala. 

Flood, pahtl chuck; hiyu chuck. 

Flour, sapolil; klimmin sapolil. 

Flow, klatawa. 

Flowers, kloshe tupso. 

Fluid, kahkwa chuck. 

Fly, (v.), mamook fly; kawak. 

Foal, (n.), tenas kuitan. 

Foal, (to be with) (v.), klootchman kui- 
tan yaka mitlite tenas. 



Pog", smoke; cultus smoke. 

Folks, tillikums. 

Pollow, klatawa kimta. 

Polly, kahkwa pelton. 

Pood, muckamuck. 

Pool, pelton. 

Poolish, Poolhardy, kahkwa pelton. 

Poot, lepee. 

Pootsteps, Pootprint, kah lapea mitlite 
(showing how; teahwit). 

Por, kopa. 

Porbear, kopet. 

Porbid, wawa kloshe kopet. 

Pord, kah kloshe nesika klatawa enati 
kopa chuck. 

Forefather, ahnkuttie. papa. 

Poreig-n, huloima. 

Forenoon, elip sltkum sun. 

Forest, kah hiyu stick xjiitlite. 

Foretell, wawa elip. 

Forever, kwahnesum. 

Porgret, to, mahlie; mahsh tumtum; ko- 
pet kumtuks 

Forgive, mamook klowhowya. 

Fork, la pooshet. 

Former, elip. 

Formerly, ahnkuttie. 

Forsake, mahsh. 

Portnig-ht, mokst Sunday. 

Fortunate, kloshe. 

Forty, lakit tahtlum. 

Por T^rhat, pe kahta. 

Ponl, cultus. 

Pound, klap. 

Pour, lakit, or lokit. 

Fourteen, tahtlum pe lakH. 

Four hundred, lakit tukamonuk. 

Fowl, la pool. 

Fox, talapus; hyas opoots talapus. 

Fragrant, kloshe. 

France, Pasaiooks illahee. 

Frank, open. 

Fraternal, kahkwa ow. 

Free, halo elite. 

Freeze, hyas cole. 

French, Frenchman, Pasiooks; Pasaiooks. 

Frequently, hiyu times. 

Fresh, chee. 

Fret, tenas solleks. 

Friday, Kwinnum sun. 

Friend, sikhs, or shikhs; tlllikum. 

Friendly, kloshe tumtum; kahkwa tilli- 

Friendless, halo tillikum. 

Frighten, mamook kwass. 

Frightened, (passive), chako kwass. 

Frog, shwah-kuk; wakik. 

Frolic, heehee. 

Frolicsome, pahtl kopa heehee. 

Prom, kopa. 

Frown, kahkwa solleks. 

Fry, to, mamook piah; mamook cook; 
mam-ook la'po-el. 

Frying-pan, la po-el. 

Fuel, piah stick. 

Fulfill, mamook kopet. 

Full, pahtl. 

Pun, heehee. 

Fund, chikamin; dolla. 

Fundament, opoots. 

Funeral, lolo or mahsh mimoluse tilli- 
kum kopa mimoluse illahee. 

Pur, eena tupso. 

Furniture, iktas. 

Furthermost; furtherest, elip siah kopa 

Futile, cultus. 

Future, alki; by-by; winapie. 

Gab; g-abble, wawa. 

Gad, moosmoos stick; gad. 

Gain, tolo. 

Gallop, to, kwalalkwalal; hyak klatawa. 

Gallows, stick kah mamook mimoluse 
kopa lope. 

Gamble, gamble; mamook gamble; ma- 
mook itlokum; heehee lemah (with 
disks) chis chis; itlokum. 

Game, heehee. 

Garments, iktas. 

Gas, kahkwa wind. 

Gash, (n.), cut; kokshut. 

Gash, (v.), mamook cut; mamook kok- 

Gasp, hyas kull spose yaka iskum yaka 
wind; wake siah lost yaka wind. 

Gather, to, iskum; hokumelh. 

Gay, kloshe; heehee. 

Gaze, skookum nanitch. 

Gender, is distinguished by prefixing the 
word man for male, and klootchman 
for female. 

General, hyas tyee. 

Generous, kloshe kopa cultus potlatch. 

Gentle, halo wild; kwan. 

Genuine, delate. 

Geography, book yaka. 

Geography, book yaka mamook kumtuks 
nesika kopa konoway illahee. 

Geology, book yaka mamook kumtuks ne- 
sika kopa konaway stone. 

German, Dutchman. 

Get, to, iskum. 

Get out, klatawa; mahsh. 

Get up, mamook getup; getup. 

Ghost, tamahnous; skookum. 

Giant, delate hyas man. 

Gift, cultus potlatch. 

Giggle, heehee. 

Gilt, kahkwa pil chikamin. 

Gipsy, huloima tillikum. 

Girl, tenas klootchman. 

Girlish, kahkwa tenas klootchman. 

Give, to, potlatch. 

Glad, kwann; youtl tumtum; kwatl. 

Glare, skookum light. 

Gleam, tenas light. 

Glean, iskum; kokumelh. 

Glee, heehee. 

Gloom, polaklie. 

Gloomy, kahkwa polaklie. 

Glorious, hyas kloshe. 

Glory, hyas kloshe nem. 

Gnats, dago; lemus. , , , , 

Gnaw, muckamuck; muckamuck kahkwa 

Go, to, klatawa. 



Ooblin, tamahnous; tsialko. 

God, Saghalie Tyee. 

Qodless, halo tikegh Saghalie Tyee. 

Godlike; Godly, kahkwa Saghalie Tyee. 

Gold, pil chikamin. 

Golden, kahkwa pil chikamin. 

Good, kloshe. 

Good-bye, klahowya. 

Good spirit, kloshe tamahnous; econe. 

Goods, iktahs. 

Goose, kalakala; whuywhuy; kalakalak- 

Gore, (n.), pilpil; (v.), mamook kokshut 
pe pilpil yaka chako. 

Gospel, Saghalie Tyee yaka wawa. 

Gossip, wawa. 

Govern, mamook tyee. 

Governor, tyee. 

Graceful,, kloshe. 

Graduate (v.), kopet kopa school. 

Grain, sapolil. 

Grammar, book yaka mamook kumtuks 
nesika kopa lalang. 

Grand, hyas kloshe. 

Grand child, tenas yaka tenas; koim. 

Granddausfliter, tenas yaka tenas 

Grandfather, papa yaka papa; chope. 

Grandmother, mama yaka mama; chitsh; 

Grandson, tenas yaka tenas man. 

Grant, potlatch. 

Grass, tupso; tupso kopa illahee. 

Grasshopper, tlak tlak. 

Grateful, (adj.), mahsie tumtum. 

Grateful, (v.), wawa mahsie. 

Grave, mimoluse illahee. 

Gravestone, stone kopa mimoluse illahee. 

Graze, muckamuck tupso. 

Grease, glease; lakles. 

Greasy, kahkwa glease. 

Great, hyas. 

Greedy; tikegh konoway; hyas tikegh. 

Green, pechugh; pale g-reen, kawkawak. 

Greet, wawa. 

Gray; a gray horse, legley. 

Grind, (as flour), mamook sapolil; ma- 
mook klimmin-klimmin; as ax, ma- 
mook sharp; mamook kloshe. 

Grit, tenas stone; kahkwa stone. 

Grizzly bear, siam. 

Groom, kuitan man; man yaka kloshe 
nanitch kuitan. ( See bridegroom.) 

Ground, illahee. 

Grouse, glouse; siwash chicken; siwash 

Grow, chako hyas. 

Growl; g'rumhle, solleks wawa. 

Guard, kloshe nanitch. 

Guardian, man yaka kloshe nanitch te- 

Guard house, skookum house. 

Guess, mika tumtum; guess. 

Guilt, mesachie. 

Gum, la gome. 

Gun, musket; sukwalal. 

Gunpowder, polallie. 

Ha, nah. 

Hail, cole snass. 

Hair, tupso; tupso kopa latet; yakso. 
Hair brush, tupso bloom. 
Half, sitkum. 

Half-breed, sitkum siwash — sitkum Bos- 
Halloo, nah. 

Halt, kopet klatawa; kopet cooley. 
Ham, cosho; dly cosho. 
Hammer, lemahto. 
Hand, le mah. 

Hand, (rig-ht), kloshe lemah. 
Handcuff, chikamin kopa mamook kow 

Hand (g-ame of), itlokum. 
Handkerchief, hakatshum. 
Handsome, hyas kloshe. 
Hang*, mimaluse kopa lope kopa yaka 

Happy, kloshe tumtum; youtl tumtum. 
Hard, kull. 

Harden, mamook kull. 
Hare, kwitshadie; kwetshoddie. 
Hark, nah; nanitch. 
Harlot, mesachie klootchman. 
Harm, (n.), mesachie. 
Harm, (v.), mamook mesachie. 
Harrow, to, mamook comb illahie. 
Hasten, liyak. 
Hat, seahpo. 
Hatch, chicken chako kopo eggs; tenas 

lapool chee chako. 
Hatchet, tenas lahash. 
Haul, mamook haul. 
Haul with wag-on, lolo kopa chikchik. 
Have, mitlite. 
Hawk, hawk, shakshak. 
Hay, hay; dly tupso. 
Hazel bush, toholal stick. 
Hazel-nuts, tukwilla. 
He, his, j^aka; yahka. 
Head, la tet. 

Headache, sick kopa latet. 
Headwind, cultus wind. 
Heal, mamook kloshe. 
Healed, (passive), chako kloshe. 
Healthy, halo sick. 
Heap, hiyu. 

Hear, kumtuks kopa kwolan. 
Hearsay, cultus kumtuks kopa kwolan. 
Heart, tumtum. 
Heartache, sick tumtum. 
Heat, waum. 
Heathen, tillikums klaska halo kumtuks 

kopa Saghalie Tyee. 
Heave, mahsh. 
Heaven, Saghalie; Saghalie Tyee yaka 

illahee; koosah; saghalie illahie. 
Heavy, till. 

Heed, (take), kloshe nanitch. 
Heirs, yaka tenas, pe yaka kloochman. 
Hell, hyas piah; lejaub yaka illahee; 

keekwulee illahee. 
Helm, ludda. 

Help, to, mamook elann; mamook help. 
Helve, lahash stick: stick kopa lahash. 
Hen, klootchman chicken. 
Hence, (conj.), kahkwa. 
Hence, (adj.), yukwa. 



Her, yaka. 

Hers, kopa yaka; yakas; yaka. 

Herb, lametsin tupso. 

Herd, hiyu moosmoos. 

Here, yukwa; how; nah. 

Hermaplirodite, burdash. 

Herring*, tenas pish; oolchus. 

Herself, yaka self. 

Hey, nah. 

Hid, hide, to, (v.), ipsoot. 

Hide, skin. 

Hig-h, saghalie; long; high. 

Hilarity, hiyu heehee. 

Hig'liway, ooakut; wayhut. 

Hill, tenas saghalie illahee. 

Him, yaka. 

Himself, yaka self. 

Hinder, wake siah mamook stop. 

Hint, wawa. 

Hire, potlatch mamook. 

Hired, (passive), iskum mamook. 

His, kopa yaka; yakas; yaka. 

Hit, to, mamook kokshut; kwulh. 

Hit, (passive), chako kokshut. 

Hitch, mamook kow. 

Hither, yakwa. 

Ho, nah; howh. 

Hoarse, cole sick wawa. 

Hoary, t'kope. 

Hoax, pelton mamook. 

Hoe, la peosh. 

Hog*, cosho. 

Hogp-ish, kahkwa cosho. 

Hold, iskum; halo mahsh. 

Hold on, kloshe mitlite; kloshe wait; 

hold on. 
Hole, klawhap. 

Holiday, hyas Sunday; Sunday. 
Holy, kahkwa Saghalie Tyee. 
Holy day, lepet. 
Holy Ghost, Saint Espli. 
Holy orders, lordr; olt. 
Holy Trinity, Lasait Trinite. 
Hollow, halo ikta mitlite. 
Honest, wake kapswalla; halo kumtuks 

Honey, honey; kahkwa shuga. 
Honor, kloshe nem. 
Hop, sopen. 
Hope, tikegh kahkwa. 
Hopeful, halo kwass. 
Hops, (wild), tlanemas. 
Hops, (tame), hops. 
Horn, stone; bone. 
Horrible; horrid, hyas mesachie. 
Horror, hyas kwass. 
Horse, kiuatan; kuitan. 
Horseback, kopa kuitan. 
Horsehair, kuitan tupso. 
Horse race, cooley kuitan. 
Horse shoes, kuitan shoes; chikamin 

Hose, stocken. 
Hospitable, kloshe. 
Hostile, solleks. 
Hot, hyas warm. 
Hour, tintin; dingding. 
House, house. 
How, kahta. 

How are you? klahowya. 

Howl, kamooks yaka wawa. 

How larg-e, kunjih hyas. 

How many, kunsih; kunjih. 

Huckleberries, shot olallie. 

Human, kahkwa man. 

Humble, halo proud. 

Humorous, heehee. 

Hundred, tukamonuk. 

Hungry, olo. 

Htmt, mamook hunt. 

Hurl, mahsh. 

Hurry, hyak; howh. 

Hurt, (adj.), kokshut. 

Hurt, (v.), chako kokshut. 

Hurt one's feeling-s, mamook sick tum- 

tum; mamook kahta. 
Husband, (my), nika man. 
Hush, kopet wawa; kopet noise. 
Hypocrite, man yaka kloshe kopa yaka 

lapush, pe klale kopa yaka tumtum. 

I, nika. 

Ice, cole chuck. 

Idea, tumtum. 

Identical, delate kahkwa. 

Idiot, pelton man. 

Idle, cultus mitlite. 

If, spose. 

Ignite, mamook piah. 

Ignorant, halo kumtuks; blind kopa tum- 

Ill; illness, sick. 

lUtreat, mamook mesachie; mamook kah- 

Imbibe, muckamuck. 

Imitate, mamook kahkwa. 

Imitation, kahkwa mamook. 

Immaterial, cultus. 

Immeasurable, halo kumtuks kunjih hy- 

Immense, delate hyas. 

Immigrate, chako kopa ikt illahee. 

Immodest; immoral, mesachie. 

Impatience, halo tikegh mitlite. 

Imperfect, wake delate. 

Impossible, wake skookum kopa. 

Improbable, (nika) tumtum yaka halo 

Improper, wake kloshe. 

Improve, chako tenas kloshe. 

In, kopa. 

Inability, wake skookum kopa. 

Inasmuch, kahkwa. 

Incite, mamook waum yaka tumtum. 

Incomplete, wake yaka kopet. 

Indeed, nawitka. 

Independent, (He is), cultus kopa (yaka) 
kopa huloima tilllkums. 

Indian, siwash. 

Indian medicine, kelale. 

Indifferent, (I am), cultus kopa nika. 

Induce (him), mamook haul yaka tum- 

Indulgfe, iskum. 

Industrious, kwanesum mamook. 

Inebriate, man yaka kwanesum pahtlum; 



man yaka kwanesum muckamuck 

Infant, tenas; chee tenas. 

Inherit, iskum spose (mika) papa yaka 

Ink, klale chuck kopa mamook tzum. 

Inanlxe, wawa. 

In shore, mahtwillie. 

Inside, keekwulee. 

Inspire, mamook waum yaka tumtum. 

Instantly, hyak. 

Insufficient, wake hiyu. 

Intend (I), nika tumtum. 

Intention, tumtum. 

Intercede, (you for me), kloshe mika 
potlatch nika wawa kopa yaka. 

Interpret, mamook cooley kopa huloima 
lalang or wawa; mamook kumtuks hu- 
loima or wawa. 

Interval, tenas laly. 

Intimate, kloshe. 

Invade, klatawa pe tikegh pight. 

Invisible (to you), wake kahta mika 

Inward, keewulee. 

Iron, chikamin. 

Irresolute, wake skookum tumtum. 

Irrigrate, mamook cooley chuck. 

Is, Mltlite is sometimes used, and some- 
times no word is used. 

Island, ailand; tenas illahee. 

It, yaka, yahka. 

Itch, tlihtlih. 

Its, kopa yaka; yakas; yaka. 

Itself, yaka self. 

Ivy, stick kahkwa lope. 

Jail, skookum house. 

Jarg-on (Chinook), Chinook. 

Jealous, sick tunftum. 

Jerk, hyak mamook haul. 

Jerked heef, moosmoos itlwillie chako 

Jest, cultus wawa. 

Job, mamook. 

Join, chako kunamokst. 

Joke, (n.), cultus wawa. 

Joke, (v.), mamook heehee. 

Jolly, heehee tumtum. 

Journey, cooley. 

Joy, joyful, youtl tumtum. 

Judfife, tyee kopa court, 

JufiT, stone labooti. 

Juice, olallie chuck. 

Jump, to, sopena. 

Jury, man kopa court klaska tikegh; 
kumtuks konoway mesachie, pe ma- 
mook kloshe kopa tillikums. 

Just, delate. 

Xamass root, lakamass. 

Kettle, ketling. 

Key, lekleh. 

Kick, to, mamook kokshut; chukkin. 

Kill, mamook mimoluse. 

Kind, kloshe. 

Kindred, tillikums. 

Kiss, bebe. 

Kitten, tenas pishpish. 

Kneel, mamook kahkwa (showing how). 

Knife, opitsah. 

Knit, mamook stocken. 

Knock, to, koko; mamook kokshut; ma- 
mook kahkwa (showing how). 

Knot, lemah; lemah kopa stick. 

Knotty, hunlkih; hiyu lemah. 

Know, to, knowledg-e, kumtuks. 

Knuckle, yahkwa kopa lemah (point to 

Iiabor, mamook. 

Iiacerate, mamook kokshut. 

Iiack, wake hiyu. 

Iiady, klootchman. 

Iiamb, tenas sheep; tenas lemooto; sheep 
yaka tenas. 

Ziame, klook teahwit; sick kopa lapea. 

I^ament, cly tumtum. 

Iiamprey eel, skwakwal; skwokwol. 

Iiand, illahee. 

Landlord, tyee. 

Land otter, inamooks. 

Lane, ooakut; wayhut. 

Lang-uag-e, la lang. 

Lard, cosho glease. 

Larg-e, hyas. 

Lark, tenas kalakala. 

Last, delate kimta; kimta kopa kono- 

Lately, chee; tenas ahukuttie. 

Laug'h, heehee; mamook heehee. 

Laug-hter, heehee. 

Launch, mahsh boat or ship kopa chuck. 

Lawn, kloshe tupso illahee. 

Lay, mahsh. 

Lazy, lazy. 

Lead, (n.), kalitan. 

Lead, (v.), mamook cooley. 

Leader, tyee. 

Lean, (adj.), halo glease. 

Lean, (v.), lagh. 

Leap, to, sopena. 

Learn, iskum kumtuks; kumtuks. 

Learned, kumtuks hiyu. 

Least, elip tenas kopa konaway. 

Leather, skin; dly skin. 

Leave, (v.), mahsh; klatawa. 

Leave off, to, kopet. 

Lecture, wawa. 

Leg", teahwit; lapea. 

Leg-al, kloshe kopa law. 

Leg'end, wawa; wake delate wawa. 

Leg-g-lng-s, mitass. 

Le'Tlslature, tyee man klaska mamook 

Lend, to, ayahwhul; tikegh owe. 

Lent, (n.), lekalem; olo time. 

Less, tenas. 

Letter, papah. 

Level, konoway kahkwa; flat. 

Liar, yaka kumtuks wawa kliminawhit. 

Liberal, kloshe kopa cultus potlatch. 

Lick, to, (v.), klakwun. 

Lice, inapoo. 

Lie, (n.), kliminawhit wawa. 



lie, (v.). wawa klimlnawhit. 

Lie down, mltlite. 

Iiig-ht, (not lieavy), halo till; wake till. 

Lig-ht, (not dark), halo polaklie. 

Iiig-ntning*, saghalie piah. 

Iiike, (adj.). kahkwa. 

Like, (v.), tikegh. 

Limb, lemah; stick yaka lemah. 

Lingfer, mitlite; halo chako. 

Lingruist, yaka kumtuks hiyu lalang:. 

Liniment, lametsin kopa skin; optlah. 

Lips, lapush, (point to them). 

Lisp, wake delate wawa. 

Listen, nah; nanitch. 

Little, tenas. 

Live, (adj.), halo mimoluse. 

Live, (v.), mitlite. 

Lodgre, (n.), tenas house; siwash house. 

Lodg'e, (v.), mitlite. 

Lofty, saghalie. 

Log-g-ing- camp, stick house. 

Lonely, kopet ikt. 

Long*, youtlkut. 

Long' ago, ahnkuttie. 

Look, to, nanitsh; nah. 

Look around, cultus nanitch. 

Look here! nah. 

Lookout! klose nanitsh. 

Looking'-g'lass, shelokum. 

Loose, (v.), stoh; mahsh kow. 

Louse, inapoo. 

Lose the way, to, tsolo; tseepie wayhut. 

Louse, enapoo, or inapoo. 

Love, to, tikegh. 

Low, keekwulee. 

Lower, (adj.), elip keekwulee. 

Lower, (v.), mamook keekwulee. 

Lowly, halo proud tumtum. 

Lukewarm, tenas lazy; tenas waum. 

Lug", lolo. 

Lumber, laplash. 

Lunch, muckamuck. 

Mad, solleks. 
Madam, klootchman. 
Magic, tamahnous. 
Mag-istrate, tyee. 
Magnificent, delate hyas kloshe. 
Maize, corn; esalth. 
Majority, elip hiyu. 
Make, to, mamook. 
Male, man. 

Malice, mesachie tumtum; solleks. 
Mallard duck, hahthaht. 
Mama, mama. 
Man, man. 

Manage, tolo; mamook. 
Mang-le, hiyu mamook cut. 
Mankind, konoway tillikums. 
Manly, kahkwa man. 

Manner, kahkwa kwanesum j^aka ma- 
Manufactory, moola. 
Many, hyiu. 
Maple, isick stick. 
Marble, kloshe stone. 
Mare, klootchman kuitan. 
Mark, (n.), tzum. 

Mark, (v.), mamook tzum. 

Market, mahkook house. 

Marriag-e; marry, malieh. 

Martyr, tillikum yaka mimoluse kopa 
saghalie tyee yaka wawa. 

Marvel, mamook tumtum — ikta okoke. 

Mask, stick seahost. 

Massacre, (v.), cultus mamook mimoluse. 

Mass, (ceremony of), la messe. 

Mast, ship stick. 

Mat, klislcwiss. 

Maternal, kahkwa mama- 
Mathematics, book yaka mamook kum- 
tuks nesika kopa mamook kwunnum. 

Matrimony, malieh. 

Matron, tyee klootchman. 

Mattock, lapeosh. 

Mature, piah. 

Maximum, elip hiyu kopa konoway. 

Mayor, tyee kopa town. 

Me, nika. 

Meadow, tupso illahee. 

Mean, delate cultus; wake kloshe. 

Measure, to, tahnim; mamook measure. 

Meat, itlwillie; meat. 

Meddle, mamook kopa halo yaka busi- 
ness; cultus mamook kopa huloima 
yaka business; okoke halo yaka busi- 
ness, pe yaka cultus mamook. 

Medicine, la mestin. 

Meditate, mamook tumtum. 

Meek, kloshe; halo solleks; kwan. 

Meet, chako kunamokst. 

Melancholy, sick tumtum. 

Melt, chako chuck; chako kahkwa chuck; 
chako klimmin. 

Memory, tumtum. 

Mend, to, mamook tip-shin. 

Menstruate, to, mahsh pilpil. 

Mental, kopa tumtum. 

Mention, wawa. 

Merchandise, iktas. 

Merchant, mahkook man. 

Merchantable, kloshe kopa mahkook. 

Merciful, (to be); Mercy, (to have), ma- 
mook klahowya. 

Messag-e, (verbal), wawa. 

Messag-e, (written), papah. 

Metal, metallic, chikamin; kahkwa chika- 

Metropolis, tyee town. 

Midday, sitkum sun. 

Middle, the, katsuk; sitkum. 

Midnig'ht, sitkum polaklie. 

Midsummer, sitkum kopa waum Illahee, 

Midst, kunamokst. 

Mig-ht, (n.), skookum; (imp. of may; 

Mig-rate, klatawa. 

Mild, kloshe. 

Military, kopa sojers. 

Milk, totoosh. 

Milkman, totoosh man. 

Milky, kahkwa totoosh. 

Mill, moola. 

Miller, moola man. 

Mimic, mamook kahkwa. 

Mind, the, tumtum. 

Mine, illahee kah chikamin mitlite. 




Mlnsrle, klatawa kunamokst; mamook 
kunamokst; mahsh kunamokst. 

Minister, leplet. 

Minor, tenas; elip tenas. 

Miracle, skookum mamook; huloima ma- 

Mischief, cultus mamook. 

Misconduct, mesachie mamook. 

Mispronounce, halo delate wawa; tseepie 
wawa; huloima wawa. 

Miss, to, tseepie. 

Missionary, leplet. 

Mistake, (v.), mamook tseepie. 

Mistake, (n.), tseepie mamook. 

Misty, tenas snass. 

Misunderstand, halo kumtuks. 

Mix, mamook kunamokst; mamook klim- 

Moccasins, skin-shoes. 

Mock, mamook shem; mamook heehee. 

Moderate, wake hyak. 

Modest, kloshe. 

MOistiure, tenas chuck. 

Mole, skad; kilapailemal. 

Molasses, melass; silup; molassis. 

Monday, Ikt Sun. 

Money, chikamin; dolla. 

Month, moon. 

Monthly, ikt moon — ikt moon. 

Moon, moon. 

Moonligrht; moonshine, moon yaka Ught. 

Moose, ulchey; hyas mo witch. 

Moral, kloshe. 

More, weght; elip hlyu. 

Morning", tenas sun. 

Moss, tupso. 

Mosquito, melakwa; dago. 

Most, elip hiyu kopa konoway. 

Mother, mama; naah; naha. 

Motherless, halo mama. 

Motherly, kahkwa mama. 

MountaixL, la monti; stone illahee; la- 

Mourn, cly tumtum. 

Mouse, hoolhool; cultus hoolhool. 

Mouth, la push; la boos. 

Move, tenas mahsh; mamook move. 

Mow, mamook cut; mamook tlkope. 

Mower, machine kopa mamook cut hay. 

Much, hyiu; hiyu. 

Mud, mud; klimmin illahee. 

Muddy, (water), illahee mitlite kopa 

Muddy, (groTind), chuck mitlite kopa 

Mule, le mel; lemool. 

Mulish, kahkwa lemool. 

Mum, halo wawa. 

Murder, mamook mimoluse. 

Murmur, (n.), tenas pight wawa. 

Murmur, (v.), potlatch tenas pight wawa. 

Muse, mamook tumtum. 

Music, sing. 

Musician, man yaka kumtuks sing. 

Musical instrument, tin tin; (Indian 

Musket, musket. 

Mussels, toluks; mussels. 

Wxurt, mamook skookum haul. 

Mustard, piah tupso. 

Miite, halo wawa. 

Mutter, wawa. 

Mutton, sheep yaka meat; lemooto yaka 

My, mine, nika; kopa nika; nikas. 
Myself, nika self. 
Mystery, hyas huloima. 

Nah, iskum. 

Nag*, tenas kuitan. 

Nails, le cloo; nail. 

Naked, halo ikta mitlite. 

Name, nem; yahhul. 

Nameless, halo nem. 

Nap, tenas sleep; tenas moosum. 

Napkin, sail kopa mamook kloshe spose 

nesika muckamuck. 
Narrate, narrative, wawa. 
Narrow, halo wide. 
Nasty, wake kloshe; mesachie. 
Nation, tillikums. 
Native, delate yaka illahee. 
Navigate, klatawa kopa chuck. 
Nay, wake; halo. 
Near, wake siah. 
Neat, kloshe. 

Neck, le cou; lecoo; neck. 
Need, hyas tikegh. 
Needle, keepwot; tupshin; needle. 
Neg'ative, halo; wake. 
Neglect, halo kloshe nanitch. 
Negro, klale man; nigga. 
Neighborhood, tilikums mitlite wake 

Nephew, sister or ats, or kahpo or ow 

yaka tenas man. 
Never, wake kunjih. 
New, chee. 
News, chee wawa. 
Nice, kloshe. 
Niece, sister or ats, or ow or kahpo yaka 

tenas klootchman. 
Nlgli, wake siah. 
Night, polaklie. 
Nine, kweest or kwaist. 
Nineteen, tahtlelum pe nine, or kweest. 
Ninety, nine or kweest tahtlum. 
Nip, mamook stop, mamook cut. 
No, not, halo; wake. 
Nohody, tillikum. 
Nod, kahkwa sleep or moosum; wake 

siah sleep, or moosum. 
Noise, noise, latlah. 
Noiseless, halo noise. 
Noisy, hiyu noise. 
None, halo; wake. 
Nonsense, cultus wawa. 
Noon, sitkum sun. 
North, kah cole chako. 
Nose, nose; emeets. 
Not, halo; wake. 
Nothing-, halo ikta. 
Notwithstanding, kegh-tchie. 
Not yet, kawek. 
Nourish, potlatch, muckamuck; kloshi( 

Now, alta. 



Nowhere, halo kah. 
Numb, kahkwa mimoluse. 
Number, klonas kunjih. 
Numeralc — 

1, Ikt, or icht. 

2, Mokst, or moxt. 

3, Klone. 

4, L.akit, or lokit. 

5, Kwinnum. 

6, Taghum, or tughum. 

7, Sinamokst, or sinamoxt. 

8, Stotekin. 

9, Kwaist, or kweest. 

10, Tahtlelum, or tahtlum. 

11, Tahtlelum pe ikt, or tahtlum pe icht. 
20, Mokst tahtlelum, or moxt tahtlum. 

100, Ikt takamonuk, or icht tukamonuk, 
or (tahtlum-tahtlum, — ten tens). 

Nurse, (n.), klootchman or man yaka 
kloshe nanitch. 

Nurse, (v.), kloshe nanitch. 

Nuts, tukwilla; toholal; nuts. 

Nutrition, muckamuck. 

Oak, kull stick; kahnahway stick. 

Oar, la lahm. 

Oats, la wen; la ween. 

Obedience, obedient, obey, iskum wawa; 

mamook kahkwa yaka wawa. 
Object, wawa halo. 
Oblig-e (a favor), mamook help. 
Obscene, mesachie. 
Obscure, halo delate kumtuks. 
Observe, nanitch. 
Obtain, iskum. 
Ocean, hyas salt chuck. 
Ochre, kawkawak illahee. 
Odd, huloima. 
Odor, humm. 
Off, klak. 

Offend, mamook solleks; mamook kata. 
Offer, tikegh potlatch. 
Officer, tyee. 
Off shore, mahtlinnie. 
Often, hiyu times. 
Oil (n.), glease. 
Oil (v), mamook glease. 
Oil cloth, snass sail. 
Oily, kahkwa glease. 

Ointment, lametsin; lametsin kopa skin. 
Old, old man, oleman. 
Old woman, lammieh; lummieh. 
Omit, mahsh. 

Omnipotent, delate hyas skookum. 
Omnipresent, mitlite konoway kah. 
Omniscient, kumtuks konoway ikta. 
On, kopa. 
One, ikt. 

One or another, ikt-ikt. 
One-eyed, ikt seahhost. 
Onion, unjun; ulalach; lesoio. 
Onion (wild), kalaka. 
Only (one), kopet ikt. 
Open, kahlakl; halakl; open. 
Operate, mamook. 
Opinion, tumtum. 
Opposite to, inati; enati. 
Or, pe. 

Oration, wawa. 

Orator, man yaka delate kumtuks pot- 
latch wawa. 

Order (v.), mahsh wawa; potlatch wawa. 

Order, to, mahsh tumtum. 

Orchard, orchard; kah hiyu apple stick 

Ore, chikamin stone. 

Original, chee; clip; olishinel. 

Orphan, halo papa halo mama. 

Other, huloima. 

Otter, otter; nawamuks. 

Otter (land), nenamooks; otter. 

Ougrht, delate kloshe. 

Our, ours, nesika; kopa neslka. 

Ourselves, nesika self. 

Out, outdoors, outside, klaghanie; kla- 

Outlaw, hyas mesachie tillikum. 

Outragre, mamook hyas mesachie. 

Oval, kahkwa egg. 

Oven, oven; kah mamook piah sapolil. 

Over (above), saghalie. 

Over (other side), eneti. 

Overalls, overalls; klahanie sakolleks. 

Overcoat, hyas coat; hyas kapo. 

Overboard, klahanie kopa boat. 

Overcome, tolo. 

Overshoes, klahanie shoes; saghalie 

Overthrow, mamook halo; tolo. 

Owl, waugh waugh; kwel kwel. 

Ox, man moosmoos; moosmoos. 

Oyster, chetlo; oysters; klogh-klogh. 

Pacify, mamook kloshe. 

Pack, (n.), ikt kow. 

Pack, (v.), lolo. 

Packagre, ikt kow. 

Paddle, (n.), isick. 

Paddle, (v.), mamook isick. 

Paid, potlatch pay or dolla. 

Paid, (passive), Iskum pay or dolla. 

Pain, sick; pain; addedah; anah. 

Paint, pent; chym. 

Paint, to, mamook pent. 

Pair, mokst. 

Palace, hyas kloshe house. 

Pale, t'kope. 

Paltry, tenas; cultus. 

Pamphlet, tenas book. 

Pansy, kloshe tupso. 

Pant, skookum mamook wind. 

Panther, hyas pishpish; panther; swad- 

Pants, sakolleks. 
Pap, lip totoosh. 
Papa, papa. 
Paper, pehpah; papah. 
Pappoose, tenas; papoos. 
Parade, (n.), show. 
Parade, (v.), mamook show; kloshe klat- 

Pardon, mamook klahowya. 
Parents, papa pe mama. 
Park, kloshe illahee. 
Parson, leplet. 
Parsonagre, leplet yaka house. 




Part, sitkum. 

Partake, iskum. 

Pass, (v.), klatawa; klatawa enetL 

Pastor, leplet. 

Paternal, kahkwa papa. 

Path, ooakut; wayhnt. 

Pauper, klahowya tillikum. 

Paw, kamooks or itchwoot yaka lapea; 

Pay, pay; potlatch dolla. 
Peas, le pwau; peas; lepwah. 
Peep, tenas nanitch. 
Pelt, skin. 

Pen, (fence), kullaghan. 
Pen, (for writing-), pen; tzum stick. 
Penance, lapelitans; laplitas. 
Pencil, pencil; tzum stick. 
Penitent, sick tumtum. 
Penitentiary, hyas skookum house. 
Penman, tzum man. 
Pentecost, lapatkot. 
People, tilikum, tillikums. 
Perfect, delate kloshe. 
Perfume, lametsin kopa nose. 
Perhaps, klonas. 
Peril, mesachie mitlite. 
Permanent, kwanesum mitlite. 
Permit, wawa nawitka. 
Perpetual, kwanesum. 
Perspiration, chuck kopa skin. 
Perspire, chuck mitlite kopa skin. 
Persevere, persist; kwanesum; mamook. 
Person, tillikum. 
Persuade, wawa pe toto. 
Person, tillikum. 
Persuade, wawa pe toto. 
Peruse, mamook read. 
Pervert, mamook huloima;. 
Petrified, chako stone. 
Petticoat, kalakwahtie; keekwulee coat 

kopa klootchman; petticoat; kalak- 

Photogrraph, tzum seahost. 
Physic, lametsin. 
Physician, doctin. 
Physiologry, book yaka mamook kum 

tuks nesika kopa nesika self. 
Pick (n.), pick; (v), iskum; tikegh. 
Picnic, muckamuck. 
Picture, tzum; papah. 
Piebald, le kye. 
Piece, sitkum. 
Piety, kloshe tumtum kopa Saghalie 

Plgr, cosho; tenas cosho. 
Pig-eon, pigeon; kwass kala kala. 
Pile (n.), hiyu. 

Pilot, pilot; man yaka mamook cooley. 
Pill, lametsin. 

steamer, or boat or ship. 
Pin, kwekwiens; pin; kwekweens; kwek- 

Pine, lagome stick. 
Pint, sitkum quart. 
Pipe, la peep; pipe. 
Pitch, la gome. 
Pitchy, la gome mitlite. 
Pity (V), mamook klahowya. 
Place (his.), kah yaka mltUte. 

Plain (n.), kloshe illahee. 

Plain (adj.), kloshe; delate. 

Plan (n.), tumtum. 

Plan (v.), mamook tumtum. 

Plank, laplash. 

Plate, la siet; plate. 

Play (n.), heehee. 

Play (v.), mamook heehee. 

Playhouse, heehee house. 

Play with string-ed instrument, mamook 

Plead, skookum wawa. 

Pleasant, please; kloshe. 

Pleased, youtl; kwatl. 

Plentiful, plenty; hiyu. 

Plow, Ploug-h, (n.), le shalloo; plow; 

Plow, Ploug-h, (v.), mamook plow; ma- 
mook kokshut illahee; klugh illahie. 

Plural, hiyu. 

Pole, la pehsh; pole. 

Poll tax, taxes kopa latet. 

Polyg-amist, man yaka mitlite hiyu 

Pompous, hyas tumtum. 

Pond, mimoluse chuck. 

Ponder, mamook tumtum. 

Pool, tenas chuck. 

Poor, klahowya; halo ikta; klahowyum. 

Pope, lepap. 

Popular, kloshe kopa hiyu tillikums. 

Population, tillikums. 

Pork, cosho; cosho itlwillle. 

Possess, mitlite. 

Possible, skookum kopa. 

Postmaster, tyee kopa papah house. 

Postpone, wawa "alki mamook." 

Posteriors, opoots. 

Potato, wappatoo; lapatak. 

Potent, skookum. 

Pound, pound; till. 

Pour, mahsh; wagh. 

Poverty, klahowya. 

Powder, polallie; powder. 

Power, skookum. 

Practical, kloshe; delate kumtuks ma- 

Practice, mamook. 

Prairie, kloshe illahee; tupso illahee. 

Prairie Wolf, talapus; hyas opoots tala- 

Praise, wawa mahsie. 

Pray, wawa kopa saghalie tyee. 

Prayer, wawa kopa saghalie tyee; plie; 
laprier; talapusha. 

Preacher, leplet. 

Precious, hyas kloshe; hyas mahkook. 

Precise, delate. 

Predecessors, klaksta man yaka mitlit« 

Preface, elip wawa. 

Prefer, elip tikegh. 

Pregnant, mitlite tenas kopa yaka belly^.^ 

Prepare, mamook kloshe; mamook readyj, 

Prepare (passive), chako ready. 

Present (n. v.), cultus potlatch. 

Presently, alkie; winapie. 

Preserve, kloshe nanitch. 




President, president; tyee kopa Wash- 

Press, mamook kwotl. 

Pretend, halo delate mamook or wawa. 

Pretty, kloshe; toketie. 

Prevail, tolo. 

Price (what), kunjih dolla. 

Prick, mamook kahkwa needle. 

Pride, proud; youtl tumtum. 

Priest, le plet. 

Prime, elip. 

Print, mamook tzum. 

Prior, elip. 

Prison, skookum house. 

Prisoner, tillikum kopa skookum house. 

Private, kopet ikt. 

Probably, klonas nawitka. 

Probably Not, klonas halo. 

Proclaim, Proclamation, wawa. 

Profane, wake kloshe kopa saghalie tyee. 

Profit, tolo. 

Progenitor, ahnkuttie papa. 

Prohibit, mamook stop; mamook kopet. 

Promise, delate wawa. 

Prompt, hyak. 

Prophet, leplet yaka wawa elip; plopet. 

Prosper, tolo. 

Protect, kloshe nanitch. 

Proud, youtl; kwetlh; proud tumtum; 
youtl tumtum. 

Protestantism, Boston plie. 

Prove, delate kumtuks; prove. 

Provide, iskum iktas; kloshe nanitch. 

Provided That, spose. 

Providence, saghalie tyee. 

Provoke, mamook solleks. 

Provoke (passive), chako solleks. 

Prow, nose kopa boat or ship. 

Prowl, cultus klatawa. 

Public, kloshe kopa konoway tillikums. 

Publish, mamook kumtuks. 

Pugfilist, yaka tikegh pight. 

Pugnacious, tikegh pight. 

Puke, muckamuck yaka kilapie; kilapie 
muckamuck; mahsh yaka muckamuk 
klahanie kopa yaka lapush. 

Pull, haul. 

Pull Off, mamook haul; mamook tlak. 

Pup, Puppy, tenas kamooks. 

Purchase, mahkook. 

Purgatory, tenas piah. 

Pure, delate kloshe. 

Purple, wake siah klale. 

Purpose, tumtum. 

Purse, dolla yaka lesak; lesak kopa dolla. 

Pursue, klatawa kimta. 

Push, mamook push; kwutl. 

Put, mahsh. 

Putrid, humm. 

Putrify, chako humm. 

Puzzle (v.), halo klap tumtum. 

Quail (n.), illahee; kulakala. 
Quail (v.), chako kwass. 
Quarrel, solleks wawa; tenas pight. 
Quarrel (v.), chako solleks; mamook 

Quarter, tenas sitkum. 

Quarter (of a dollar), kwahta. 

Quarterly, ikt time kopa klone moon. 

Quartz, tkope stone. 

Queen, tyee klootchman. 

Queer, huloima. 

Quell, Quench, mamook kopet. 

Questions, wawa. 

Quick, Quickly, hyak. 

Quiet, kwann. 

Quills, tepeh; kalakala yaka tupso. 

Quilt, quilt; tzum paseesie. 

Quilt, kopet. 

Quiver, stick kalitan lesak. 

Quorum, elip sitkum. 

Babid, hyas solleks. 

Babble, cultus tillikums. 

Babbit, kwitshadie; kwitshoddie. 

Bace, hyak cooley. 

Bace Horse, cooley kultan; kuitan yaka 

kumtuks cooley. 
Bag-g-ed, itkas yaka kokshut. 
Bain, snass. 

Baise, mamook saghalie. 
Bainy, hiyu snass. 
Bake, comb kopa illahee. 
Bamble, cultus cooley. 
Banch, illahee; ranch. 
Bap, mamook kokshut; koko. 
Bape, kapswalla klootchman. 
Bapid, hyak. 

Bapids, skookum chuck; cooley chuck. 
Bare, wake hiyu. 
Bascal, mesachie tillikum. 
Bash, cultus mamook hyak. 
Basp, hyas file; hyas lalim, 
Baspberries, seapho olallie; itlawa. 
Bat, hyas hoolhool; colecole. 
Bather, elip tikegh. 
Battle, shugh (shake). 
Battlesnake, shugh opoots; shek opoots. 
Bave, chako clazy. 
Baven, kaka. 

Baw, wake yaka piah; halo piah. 
Bazor, Knife, opitsah. 
Bazor Fish, ona. 

Beach, ko; iskum; mamook kwotl. 
Bead, Bead, kumtuks papah. 
Beal, Beally, delate. 
Beap, mamook cut. 
Bear, kimta. 

Beason (v.), mamoon tumtum. 
Beason (What), (n.), pe kahta. 
Beassemble, wegt klatawa. 
Beassert, weght wawa. 
Bebel, Bebellion, pight kopa tyee. 
Bebuild, weght mamoon house. 
Bebuke, skookum wawa. 
Becall, weght wawa. 
Becede, kilapie. 
Beceive, iskum. 
Becent, chee. 

Beckon, mamook tumtum. 
Becline, mitlite. 
Becognize, kumtuks. 
BecoUect, klap tum turn. 



Becommend, wawa kloshe. 

Beconquer, weght tolo. 

Beconsider, weght mamook tumtum. 

Becount, weght wawa. 

Becover, iskum. 

Becreation, kloshe time. 

Bectuiu, opoots. 

BecumbBnt, mitlite. 

Bed, pil. 

Bedden, pilpil. 

Beddish, wake siah pil; kahkwa pil. 

Bed Hot, hyas warm pe chako pil. 

Beduce, mamook keekwulee. 

Be-embark, weght klatawa kopa boat. 

Be-enter, weght klatawa kopa house. 

Befine, mamook delate kloshe. 

Beform, chako kloshe. 

Befresh, chako chee. 

Befund, kilapie dolla. 

Befuse (n.), cultus ikta. 

Befuse (v.), wawa halo; (if unobliging- 

ly) mamook kwish. 
Begret, sick tumtum. 
BegrQar, kwanesum kahkwa. 
Beject, mahsh. 
Bejoice, youtl tumtum. 
Belate, To, yiem; wawa. 
Belation, Belative, tillikum. 
Belease, mahsh; mahsh kow. 
Beliable, kloshe; halo nika kwass kopa 

yaka; (I am not afraid of him, or ha 

is reliable). 
Belief, help. 

Believe, mamook help; potlatch help. 
Belig-ion, saghalie tyee yaka wawa. 
Belish, kloshe kopa lapush. 
Bemain, mitlite. 

Bemainder (What?), kunjih mitlite. 
Bexuaiuder (TMs is), okoke mitlite. 
Bemarry, weght malieh. 
Bemedy (n.), kloshe lametsin. 
Bemedy (v.), mamook kloshe. 
Bemember (To not forget), mitlite kopa 

tumtum; wake kopet kumtuks. 
Bemember (To remember after havingf 

for£rotteii), klap tumtum. 
Bemit, mahsh. 
Bemorse, sick tumtum. 
Bemote, siah. 

Bem,ount, weght klatawa saghalie. 
Bem.ove; mahsh, lolo. 
Bend, mamook kokshut. 
Benew, mamook chee. 
Benown, hyas kloshe nem. 
Bepair, mamook kloshe. 
Bepeal, mamook halo. 
Bepeat, weght wawa. 
Beply, kelapie wawa. 
Beprove, potlatch skookum wawa. 
Beside, mitlite. 
Besolnte, skookum tumtum. 
Besolve, mamook tumtum. 
Best, cultus mitlite. 
Bestaurant, muckamuck house. 
Besurrect, Besnrrection, get up. 
Betreat (v.), Betum, Beverse, kelipi; 

Beview, mamook tumtum. 

Bevive, wind kilapie; kilapie wind. 

Bibbon, le loba. 

Bice, lice. 

Bicli, halo klahowya; mitlite hiyu iktas 

pe dolla. 
Bid (Get rid of), mahsh. 
Bide, klatawa kopa kuitan or chikchik. 
Bidicule (n.), shem; heehee. 
BidiciUe (v.), mamook shem; mamook 

Bifle, callipeen. 
Eigrht, kloshe. 
Big'ht Hand, kloshe lemah. 
Bing*, kweokweo. 
Bingf tbe Bell, mamook tintin. 
Bipe, piah. 
Bipen, chako piah. 
Bise, aet Up, mitwhit. 
Bisk, cultus kopa nika; (I will risk it) 

halo nika kwass. 
Biver, chuck; cooley chuck; liver. 
Boad, ooakut; wayhut. 
Boam, Klatawa kah. 
Boan Colored, sandelie. 
Boast, mamook la pellah; mamook piah; 

mamook cook. 
Bob, kapswalla. 
Bobin, pil koaten. 
Bock, Stone, hyas stone. 
Bocky, hiyu stone mitlite. 
Boe (of Fisli), pish eggs; pish lesep. 
Boll, kalapie. 

Boot, stick keekwulee kopa illahee, 
Bope, lope. 
Bosary, leshaple. 
Bose (n.), kloshe tupso. 
Bosin, lagome; kull lagome. 
Eot, chako rotten. 
Botten, poolie; rotten. 
Bound, lolo; lowullo; (whole; the entire 

of anything). 
Bove, cultus klatawa; cultus cooley. 
Bow (v.), mamook lalahm. 
Bower, man yaka kumtuks mamook 

Bubber Coat, snass coat. 
Budder, boat opoots; ludder. 
Bude, cultus. 
Buin, mamook halo. 
Bum, lum; whiskey. 
Bumor, cultus wawa. 
Bun, hyak cooley. 
Bun Away, kapswalla klatawa. 
Bupture, kokshut. 
Bust, pil Ikta kopa chikamin. 

Sabbath, Sunday, Sante. 

Sable, mink. 

Sack, le sak. 

Sacrament, Jesus yaka muckamuck; 

sacramenta; saklema. 
Sacred, kloshe kopa saghalie tyee. 
Sad, sick tumtum. 
Saddle, la sell. 

Saddle Housing's, pe pishemo. 
Safe, kloshe. 
sail, sail. 



Sailor, shipman. 

Saint, Christian, lesai; sai before the 
names of men, except those which be- 
gin with vowels; sait before those of 
females and nouns which begin with 

Saints, lesai. 

Saint John, Sai Sha. 

Salesman, mahkook man. 

Sallal Berries, sallal olallie. 

Salmon, salmon. 

Salt, salt. 

Same, kahkwa. 

Sand, polallie; polallie illahee; tenas 
stone kahkwa polallie. 

Sanguine, skookum tumtum. 

Sap, chuck kopa stick. 

Sash, la sanjel; belt. 

Satan, lejaub; diaub. 

Satanic, kahkwa lejaub. 

Satisfied (I am), kloshe kopa nika. 

Saturday, taghum sun. 

Savage, Wild, old pashion; siwash. 

Save, iskum. 

Saw, la gwin; la scie; lasee. 

Say, to, wawa; wauwau; nah. 

Scales, ikta kopa mamook till. 

Scant, Scanty, wake hiyu. 

Scarce, wake hiyu. 

Scarf, hyas sail kopa neck. 

Scare, mamook kwass. 

Scatter, mahsh konoway kah. 

Scent (n.), humn. 

Scent (v.), mamook humn. 

Scholar, tenas kopa school; school tenas 

Schooner, mokst stick ship. 

Scissors, le seezo; sezo. 

Scold, skookum wawa. 

Scream, hyas skookum cly. 

Scripture, Bihle, saghalie tyee yaka book 
or papah. 

Scythe, hyas knife kopa hay; youtlkut 

Sea, salt chuck; sea. 

Seal, olhlyu; siwash cosho. 

Second, mokst. 

Secret, ipsoot. 

Secure, kloshe. 

Seduce, kapswalla. 

See, to, nanitsh. 

Seek, mamook hunt; klatawa pe tikegh 

Seize, iskum. 

Seldom, wake hiyu. 

Select, iskum ikta mlka tikegh. 

Sell, to, mahsh mahkook. (Eells says, 
"Mahsh is now used, to sell, and 
huyhuy to trade and exchange, 
mahkook, to buy.) 

Send, mahsh. 

Senior, elip. 

Sense, kumtuks; latet. 

Separate (adj.), huloima. 

Separate (v.), mamook cut. 

Serious, wake heehee. 

Sermon, saghalie tyee yaka wawa. 

Serpent, oluk; snake. 

Servant, kahkwa elite. 

Serve, mamook. 

Seven, sinamoxt; sinamokst. 

Seventeen, tahtlum pe sinamokst. 

Seventy, sinamokst tahtlum. 

Several, tenas hiyu. 

Sew, to, majnook tipshin; mamook sew. 

Shackle, mamook kow; mahsh chikamin 
kopa yaka lemah. 

Shake, to, toto; hullel. 

Shaker ("A religious sect which arose 
on Puget Sound about 1882 somewhat 
allied in principle to the Messiah 
craze; and which took its name from 
the rapid, nervous shaking of its fol- 
lowers." — Eells.) 

ShaU, alki; by by; winapie. 

Shallow, wake keekwulee. 

Shame, shem. 

Shameless, halo shem; halo kumtuks 

Share (It is my), okoke nikas; okoke 
kopa nika. 

Shark, shark; hyas kamooks pish. 

Sharp, yahkisilth; sharp; tsish; 
pahkisilth; lakesilh. 

Sharpen, to, mamook tsish. 

Shatter, mamook kokshut. 

She, Her, yahka; yaka. 

Sheep, le mooto; lummeto. 

Sheet, sail. 

Shell Money (the small size), coopcoop; 
allekacheek. (The large) hykwa; 

Shing-le, lebahdo. 

Shine (v.), mamook kloshe. 

Shining", towagh. 

Ship, ship. 

Shirt, shut. 

Shoal, wake keekwulee. 

Shoes, shoes; shush; tkitlipa. 

Shoot, to, mamook poo. 

Shore, Illahee. 

Shore (Towards), matline. 

Short, yuteskut; halo long. 

Shortly, alkie; winapie. 

Shot, shot; tenas le bal; kalitan. 

Shot Pouch, kalitan lesac; tsolepat. 

Shoulders, okchok. 

Shout, to, hyas wawa. 

Shovel, la pell. 

Shower, tenas snass. 

Shriek, skookum wawa. 

Shudder, kwass pe shake. 

Shut, to, ikpooie; mamook ikpooie. 

Shy, kwass. 

Sick, sick; etsitsa. 

Sicken, mamook sick. 

Sickly, tenas sick. 

Side, side; (this side, yukwa; that side, 
yahwa.) . 

Sift, to, toto. 

Sigh, tenas cly. 

Sightless, halo nanitch; blind. 

Sign, kahkwa picture. 

Silence (n.), halo noise. 

Silence (v.. Imp.), kopet noise; howh. 

Silk, la sway; lasoy; laswa; silk cloth; 
skookum sail. 



Silly, kahkwa pelton. 

Silver, tkope chikamin; tkope dolla. 

Similar, kahkwa. 

Simmer, tenas liplip. 

Simply, kopet. 

Sin, Sinful, mesachie; lepeshe. 

Since, kimta. 

Sincere, delate. 

Sing*, to, shantie. 

Single, kopet ikt. 

Sink (to), mahsh keekwulee; (it sinks) 

klatawa keekwulee; klip. 
Sinner, mesachie tillikum. 
Sip, muckamuck chuck. 
Sirup, melass; silup. 
Sister, kahpho (if older than the 

speaker) ; elip ats. 
Sisterly, kahkwa ats. 
Sit, to, mitlite. 
Six, taghum; tohum. 
Sixteen, tahtlum pe taghum. 
Sixty-one, taghum tahtlum pe ikt. 
Size (what), kunjih hyas. 
Skeptic, man yaka halo iskum saghalie 

tyee yaka wawa. 
Skill, kumtuks mamook 
Skin, 3kln. 

Skull, bone kopa seahost (point to it). 
Skunk, hum opoots; peshes, piupiu; 

Sky, koosagh; saghalie; ekusah. 
Slab, cultus laplash. 
Slander, mesachie wawa; kliminawhit 

Slap, mamook kokshut. 
Slave, elite; mistchimas; mistshimus. 
Slay, mamook mimoluse. 
Sleep, moosum; sleep. 
Sleepless, halo moosum; halo sleep. 
Sleepy, tikegh moosum; tikegh sleep. 
Sleight of hand, tamanous. 
Slight (adj.), tenas. 
Sling (v.), mahsh. 

Sling (n.), tenas lope kopa mahsh stone. 
Slip, wake siah fall down. 
Slippery, cultus; loholoh. 
Slow, Slowly, klahwa; wake hyak. 
Slut, klootchman kamooks. 
Sly, ipsoot. 
Small, tenas. 
Smell, a, humm. 
Smile, tenas heehee. 
Smite, mamook kokshut. 
Smoke (n.), smoke. 
Smoke (v.), mamook smoke. 
Smoky (very), hiyu smoke. 
Smooth, kloshe. 

Snake, oluk; wahpoos; snake. , 
Snare, Trap, lapeage; kwalta. 
Snow, snow; cole snass. 
So, kahkwa. 

Soak, mitlite kopa chuck. 
Soap, soap. 
Soft, klimmin. 
Soil, illahee. 
Soldiers, sogers. 
Solely, kopet. 
Solicit, wawa; ask. 

Solitary, kopet ikt. 

Some, tenas hiyu; sitkum. 

Sometimes, tenas hiyu times. 

Somebody, ikt man; klonas klaksta. 

Son, tenas. 

Soon, alki. 

Sorcerer, tamahnous man. 

Sore, sick. 

Sorrel Colored, a sorrel horse, le blau: 
pil; pil kuitan. 

Sorry, Sorrow, sick tumtum. 

Soul, tumtum; sele. 

Sound, noise; latlah. 

Soup, lasup; liplip muckamuck. 

Sour, kwates; sour. 

South, kah sun mitlite kopa sitkum sun. 

Sow (n.), klootchman cosho. 

Sow (v.), mahsh. 

Spade, la pell. 

Spanish flies, piah lametsin. 

Spark, tenas piah. 

Sparrow, tenas kalakala. 

Speak, to, wawa. 

Speaker, wawa man; man yaka kumtuks 

Spectacles, glass seahost; dolla seahost; 
lakit seahost. 

Speed, speedy, hyak. 

Spend, mahsh. 

Spider, skookum (when spoken of as a 

Spill, to, wagh; mahsh. 

Spine, bone kopa back. 

Spirit, tumtum; life. 

Spirits, tamahnous. 

Spirits, lum; whiskey. 

Spit, mahsh lapush chuck; mamook toh. 

Splendid, hyas kloshe. 

Split, to, mamook tsugh; mamook kok- 
shut; wagh; tsugh. 

Split (passive), kokshut; chako kokshut; 
chako tsugh. 

Spoil, mamook spoil; mamook mesachie; 
mamook cultas. 

Spoil (passive), spoil; chako spoil; puli. 

Spoon, spoon. 

Sport, heehee. 

Spotted, tzum; le kye. 

Spring (v.), sopen; jump. 

Spring, (n.), tenas waum illahee. 

Spurs, le see bio. 

Spy, nanitch skookum. 

Squall, skookum wind pe snass. 

Squaw, Siwash klootchman. 

Squeal, wawa kahkwa cosho. 

Squeeze, kwutl. 

Squirrel, skwiskwis; kwiskwis. 

Stah, to, klemahun; mamook cut; mam- 
ook kokshut kopa knife. 

Stable, kuitan house. 

Stag, man mowitch. 

Stage, chikchik; tsiktsik. 

Stagger, klatawa kahkwa pahtlum man. 

Stale, oleman. 

Stallion, man kuitan; yaka mitlite stone; 
stud horse. 

Stamps (postage), tzum seahost. 

Stand, to, mitwhit. 



stars, tslltsil; chilchil. 

Stare, skookum nanitch. 

Start, klatawa; chee klatawa. 

State, hyas illahee. 

Stay, to, mitlite. 

Steady, (be), kloshe nanitch. 

Steal, to, kaps walla; kapsualla. 

Steam, smoke. 

Steamer, piah ship; steamer; steamboat. 

Steel, chikamin; piah chikamin. 

Steer, tenas man moosmoos. 

Stench, humm; piupiu. 

Stem, opoots. 

Stew, mamook liplip; lakanim. 

Stick, a, (n.), stick. 

Stick, (v.), mamook cut; mamook kwotl. 

Still, (be), kloshe kopet. 

Still, (adj.), kloshe. 

Sting*, (n.), opoots klemahun. 

Stink, a, piupiu; humm. 

Stir, tenas klatawa. 

Stirrup, sitlay. 

Stocking's, stocken; kushis. 

Stomach, Belly; yakwahtin. 

Stone, stone. 

Stony, kahkwa stone; stone mitlite. 

Stooped, kaulkek; lah. 

Stop, (active), mamook kopet; ikpooie; 

Stop, to, (Imp.), kopet. 
Store, mahkook house. 
Storekeeper, mahkook man. 
Storm, (wind), hiyu wind; (rain), hiyu 

Story, enkahnam; wawa; yiem. 
Stove, stob; stove. 
Straig-ht, delate, or delet; sipah. 
Straig'hten, mamook delate. 
Strang-e, huloima. 
Strang'er, huloima tillikum. 
Strap, (n.), skin lope. 
Strap, (v.), mamook kow. 
Strawberries, amote; ahmoteh. 
Stray, cultus klatawa; klatawa kah. 
Stream, chuck; cooley chuck. 
Street, ooakut kopa town. 
Strike, mamook kokshut. 
String", tenas lope. 
Stripe, tzum. 

Strive, mamook skookum. 
Stroll, cultus klatawa; cultus cooley. 
Strong*, skookum. 
Strong-ly, kahkwa skookum. 
Student, school tenas; tenas kopa school. 
Study, mamook tumtum kopa papah or 

Stupendous, delate hyas. 
Stupid, halo latet; kahkwa pelton. 
Stupor, kahkwa mimoluse. 
Sturg-eon, stutchun. 
Subdue, Subject, tolo; kuon. 
Sublime, hyas kloshe. 

Submerg'e, mahsh keekwulee kopa chuck. 
Submit, kopet. 
Subscribe, mamook tzum. 
Subsequent, kimta. 
Subsistence, muckamuck. 
Subtract, mamook haul. 

Succeed, tolo. 

Such, kahkwa. 

Suck, muckamuck. 

Sucker, katake. 

Sudden, Suddenly, hyak. 

Sug'ar, shuga; le sook; shugah; shukwa. 

Sugary, kahkwa shuga. 

Suicide (to commit), mamook mimoluse 

yaka self. 
Suitable, kloshe. 
Sulky, Sullen, solleks. 
Sum, konoway. 
Summer, waum illahee. 
Summon, wawa kloshe yaka chako. 
Sun, sun; otelagh. 
Sunday, Sunday; Sante. 
Sunlig-ht, sun yaka light. 
Sunrise, tenas sun; get up sun. 
Sunset, tenas polaklie; klip sun. 
Sup, Supper, muckamuck kopa tenas 

Superb, hyas kloshe. 
Superior, clip kloshe. 
Supervise, kloshe nanitch. 
Supplant, tlkop ooakut. (St. O.),. To 

cut one's road). 
Support, kloshe nanitch; Potlatch mucka- 
muck pe konoway iktas. 
Suppose, spose; pos. 
Supreme, elip hyas kopa konoway. 
Sure, delate; delate kumtuks. 
Surgeon, doctin. 

Surmise, mamook tumtum; tumtum. 
Surprise, mamook tumtum; ikta okoke. 
Surrender, kopet. 
Survey, mamook tzum illahee. 
Survivor, man halo mimoluse. 
Suspect, (I), nika tumtum kahkwa; pe 

halo nika delate kumtuks. 
Swallow, (n.), tenas kalakala. 
Swallow, (v.), muckamuck. 
Swan, kahloke; kahloken; cocumb; 

ouwucheh; keluk. 
Swap, huyhuy. 

Swear, wawa mesachie; mamook swear. 
Sweat, chuck kopa skin. 
Sweep, to, mamook bloom. 
Sweet, tsee, kahkwa shuga. 
Sweetheart, (my), nika tenas klootch- 

man, or tenas man. 
Swell, chako hyas. 
Swift, hyak. 

Swift water, skookum chuck. 
Swim, sitshum; mamook swim. 
Swine, cosho. 
Swing*, hang. 
Sympathy, sick tumtum kunamokst. 

Table, la tahb. 

Tacks, tenas nails; tenas lecloo. 

Tail, opoots. 

Take, to, iskum. 

Take care, kloshs nanitch. 

Take off, or out, mamook haul; mamook 

klah; mamook klak; mahsh. 
Talk, wawa. 
Talkative, hiyu wawa. 



Tale, or Story, wawa; yiem; ehkahnam. 
Tall, hyas long. 
Tallow, moosmoos glease. 
Tambourine or Indian Drtun, pompom. 
Tame, (adj.), halo wild; halo lemolo; 

Tame, (v.), mamook kwann. 
Tame, Kwass. (Gibbs.) 
Tan, mamook kloshe skin; mahsh yakso 

kopa skin. 
Tap, tenas kokshut. 
Tart, tenas sour; tenas kwates. 
Task, mamook. 
Taste, tenas muckamuck. 
Tattle, cultus wawa; yiem. 
Tavern, muckamuck house. 
Tea, tea. 
Teach, to, mamook kumtuks; mamook 

Tear, (n.), chuck kopa seahost. 
Teat, Tatoosh. 
Tedious, till; long. 
Teetotaler, man yaka halo kumtuks 

muckamuck whiskey or lum. 
Teeth, la tah; teeth; ledan; letai; lanes; 

Tell, to, wawa; yiem. 
Temple, hyas church house. 
Tempt, tikegh haul kopa mesachie. 
Ten, tahtlum ; tahtlelum. 
Tend, kloshe nanitch. 
Tender, wake kuU; waka skookum. 
Tent, sail house. 
Term, (of school), kwahta. 
Terrible, Terror, delate hyas mesachie. 
Territory, hyas illahee. 
Testament, saghalie tyee yaka papah or 

Testicles, stone, bone. 
Testimony, wawa kopa court. 
Testify, wawa kopa court; delate yiem. 
Than, kopa. 

Thanks, Thankful, Thank you, mahsie. 
That, okoke. 
That way, yahwa. 
Thaw, (water), chako chuck; (land), 

chako klimmin. 
The, sometimes okoke is used, a very 

definite the, almost equal to that. 
Thee, mika. 
Theft, kapswalla. 

Their, Theirs, klaska; kopa klaska. 
Them, klaska. 
Themselves, klaska self. 
Theology, saghalie tyee yaka wawa. 
There, yahwa; kopa. 
Thereabout, wake siah yahwa. 
They, klaska. 

Thick, (as molasses), pitlilh; pitlih. 
Thief, kapswalla man; tillikum, yaka 

kumtuks kapswalla. 
Thisrh, lapea yahwa; (pointing to it). 
Thin, (as a board), pewahte; tewhate; 

lakesilh; pchih; pewhattie. 
Thine, mika. 
Thing-, ikta; iktah. 
Thing's, iktas. 
Think, tumtum; mamook tumtum; pit- 

Third, klone. 
Thirsty, olo kopa chuck. 
Thirteen, tahtlum pe klone. 
Thirty, klone tahtlum. 
Thirty-one, klone tahtlum pe ikt. 
This, okoke; ok. 
This way, yukwa. 
Thither, yahwa. 
Thorn, needle kopa stick. 
Thoroug-h, delate. 
Those, okoke. 
Thou, thy, thine, mika. 
Thoug-ht, tumtum. 
Thoug-htless, halo tumtum. 
Thousand, thousand; tahtlum tukamook; 

Thrash, mamook pat. 
Thread, klapite, hwilom. 
Threat, mamook kwass. 
Three, klone. 
Throng*, hiyu tillikums. 
Trougrh, (by means of), kopa. 
Throw, Thrust, Throw away, mahsh. 
Thumb, lemah (pointing to it). 
Thimder, skookum noise kopa saghalie. 
Thursday, lakit sun. 
Thus, kahkwa. 
Thyself, mika self. 
Tide, chuck chako pe klatawa. 
Tie, (v.), mamook kow. 
Tig-er, hyas pishpish. 
Tig-ht, skookum; kwutl. 
Ttoxber, stick. 
Timid, kwass. 

Tin, Tinware, malah; tin; matah. 
Tint, tzum. 
Tip, to, lagh. 
Tire, (n.), chikamin mitlite kopa chik- 

Tired, till. 
To, towards, kopa. 

Tobacco, bacca; kinootl; kinoos; kimoolth 
Tobacco, bacca; kinootl; kinoos; kin- 

Today, okoke sun. 
Tog-ether, kunamokst. 
Toil, mamook. 
Tomb, mimoluse illahee. 
Tomorrow, tomolla. 
Tong-ue, la lang. 
Tonigrht, okoke polakalie. 
Too, kunamokst. 
Toothache, sick kopa tooth, or ledan; or 

Top, (adj.), saghalie. 
Tom, kokshut; tlah tlah. 
Torpid, kahkwa mimoluse. 
Toss, mahsh. 
Total, konoway. 
Toug-h, skookum; kull. 
Tow, mamook haul. 
Toward, kopa. 
Towel, sail yoka mamook dly; seahost 

pe lemah. 
Track, tzum kah. 
Trade, huyhuy. 
Tradesman, mahkook man. 




Tradition, ahnkuttie tillikums klaska 

Trail, ooakut; wayhut; tenas ooakut. 
Tramp, klatawa kopa lapea. 
Transfer, lolo. 

Transgressor, mesachie man. 
Translate, mamook cooley kopa huloima 

Transmit, mahsh; send. 
Trap, la piege; trap; la peage; kwalta. 
Trash, cultus iktas. , 

Travel, klatawa; cooley. 
Traveler, man yaka hiyu cooley. 
Treacherous, hyas tseepie; mesachie. 
Treasurer, tillikum yaka kloshe nanitch 

Tread, klatawa. 
Tree, stick. 

Tree, fallen, whim stick. 
Tremhle, shake, hullel; hulul. 
Tribe, lalang. 
Trick, tseepie mamook. 
Trim (v.), mamook cut; mamook kloshe. 
Trinity, saghalie tyee; (nesika papa, pe 

yaka tenas Jesus) pe yaka Holy Spirit) 

Trot, to, tehteh. 
Trouble (n.), trouble. 
Trouble (v.), mamook trouble; mamook 

till tumtum. 
Trowsers, sakolleks. 
Trout, trout; tenas fish; tzum salmon; 

tenas salmon. 
True, delate; halo kliminawhit. 
Truth, delate wawa. 
Trunk, lacasset. 
Tub, tamolitsh. 
Tuesday, mokst sun. 
Turn, kilapie; howh. 
Tumingf, lahlah. 

Turnip, turnip; lenawo; lamooow. 
Twelve, tahtlum pe mokst. 
Twenty, mokst tahtlum. 
Twenty-one, mokst tahtlum pe ikt. 
Twilig-ht, tenas polaklie. 
Twine, tenas lope; klapite. 
Twist, mamook kilapie (showing how). 
Two, twice, mokst. 
Tyro, halo kumtuks. 

Udder, totoosh or tatoosh. 

Ug-ly, cultus; wake toketie. 

Ultimate, kimta; halo huloima. 

Umbrella, tenas sail house kopa snass. 

Unable, wake skookum; howkwutl; 

Unaccustomed, Unacciuainted, halo kum- 

Unacquired, halo iskum. 

Unaware, halo kumtuks. 

Unappeased, halo chako kloshe tumtum. 

Unbelief, halo iskum kopa tumtum. 

Unbind, mahsh kow. 

Unceasing*, kwanesum. 

Unchristian, halo kahkwa Jesus. 

Uncivilized, wild. 

Uncle, tot; uncle; papa or mama yaka 

ow; ehee. 
Unclean, hiyu mesachie mitlite. 
Unconscious, kahkwa mimoluse. 
Uncork, mamook open. 
Under, keekwulee; keekwillie. 
Understand, to, kumtuks. 
Undoubted, delate. 
Undress, mahsh iktas. 
Undying*, halo mimoluse. 
Unequal, wake kahkwa. 
Unexpected (to me), nika tumtum halo 

yaka chako kahkwa. 
Unexplored, halo klaksta nanitch. 
Unfasten, mahsh kow. 
Unfavorable, halo kloshe. 
Unfinished, halo kopet. 
Ung*odly, mesachie. 
Unhappy, sick tumtum. 
Unintelligible, halo kumtuks. 
Unit, ikt. 
Unite, mamook join; mamook kunamokst; 

chako kunamokst. 
Universal, konoway. 

Universe, konoway illahee konoway kah. 
Unjust, wake delate. 
Unkind, wake kloshe. 
Unknown, halo kumtuks. 
Unlawful, wake kloshe kopa law. 
Unload, mahsh iktas. 
Unlock, mamook halo lekleh. 
Unmeaning*, cultus; pelton. 
Unmentionable, halo wawa. 
Unnoticed, halo nanitch. 
Unpopular, konoway tillikums halo 

tikegh kahkwa. 
Unresolved, halo tumtum. 
Unsalable, wake kloshe kopa mahkook. 
Untamed, lemolo; wild. 
Untanned, halo kloshe. 
Untie, to, mahsh kow; mamook stoh. 
Unto, kopa. 
Untold, halo wawa. 
Untrue, kliminawhit. 
Unturned, halo kilapie. 
Unusual, huloima. 
Unwilling, halo tikegh. 
Unwind, mamook kilapie. 
Unwise, pelton. 
Unwholesome, wake kloshe. 
Unworthy, halo kloshe; wake kloshe; 

Up, saghalie. 
Upbraid, cultus wawa. 
Upheave, mahsh kopa saghalie. 
Uphold, mamook help; mamook skookum. 
Upland, saghalie illahee. 
Upon, saghalie kopa. 
Upper, Uppermost, elip saghalie. 
Uprig*ht, delate; klosh; mitwhit. 
Upset, Upside Down, kelipi; kilapie. 
Upward, saghalie. 
Urg-e, skookum wawa. 
Urinate, mahsh chuck. 
Us, nesika. 

Use, mamook; use; mamook use. 
Useful, kloshe. 
Useles, cultus. 
Usual, kahkwa kwanesum. 




UtensU, ikta. 

Vacant, halo. 

Vaccinate, mahsh lametsin kopa lemah 

yaka kloshe kopa smallpox. 
Vagabond, cultus tillikum. 
Veil, sail kopa seahost. 
Vain, youth; proud. 
Valiant, skookura tumtum. 
Valise, tenas lacasset. 
Valley, kloshe illahee; coulee. 
Vancouver, kltsothot; kitsotkwa. 
Vanish., chako halo. 
Vary, mamook huloima. 
Vary (passive), chako huloima. 
Vast, hyas. 

Veal, tenas moosmoos yaka itlwillie. 
Vegetables, konoway muckamuck chako 

kopa illahee. 
Vehement, skookum. 
Vehicle, chikchik. 

Vein, kah pilpil mitlite (pointing to it). 
Venereal, the, piah sick. 
Vengeance, hyas solleks. 
Venison, mowitsh. 
Verily, delate. 
Vermine, inapoo. 
Very, hyas. 

Very Small, hyas tenas. 
Vessel, ship. 
Vest, la ween; la west. 
Vice, mesachie. 
Vicinity, wake siah. 
Victor, tillikum yaka tolo. 
Victory, tolo. 
Victuals, muckamuck. 
View, nanitch. 
Vigil, wake moosum. 
Vigils (the), levigil; pishil. 
Vile, mesachie. 
Village, tenas town. 
Villain, mesachie tillikum. 
Violin, tin tin. 
Vine, stick; youtlkut tupso; stick 

kahkwa lope. 
Violent, skookum. 
Violet, kloshe tupso. 
Viper, tenas oluk. 
Virgin, tenas klootchman; klootchman 

halo kumtuks man; haloman. 
Virtuous, kloshe. 
Vision, nanitch. 
Visit, klatawa pe nanitch. 
Voice, wawa. 
Volcano, piah mountain. 
Vomit, to, wagh; mahsh muckumuck; 

muckamuck kilapie. 
Vote, mamook vote. 
Voyatge, klatawa kopa boat or ship. 

Wade, klatawa kopa lapea kopa chuck. 
Wag, heehee man. 
Wagon, chikchik; tsiktsik. 
Wail, hiyu cly, 
Walt, mitlite; winapie. 
Wake, halo sleep; halo moosum. 

Waken, mamook get up. 

Walk, klatawa kopa lapea. 

Wall, skookum kulaghan; skookum 

Waltz, tanse. 

Wander, to, cultus klatawa; tsolo. 
Want, to, tikegh. 
War, pight. 

Warble, sing kahkwa kalakala. 
Warm, waum. 
Warning, potlatch kumtuks kopa 

mesachie; mamook kumtuks kopa 

Warrior, sogers; pight tillikum. 
Wash, to, mamook wash. 
Wasp, andialh. 

Waste, cultus lost; cultus mahsh. 
Watch (n.), tiktik; watch. 
Watch (v.), kloshe nanitch. 
Watchman, man yaka kwanesum kloshe 

Water, chuck. 
Waterfall, tumwater. 
Waterspout, chuck ooakut. 
Waver, wake skookum. 
Waves, hiyu sea; chuck chako solleks. 
Way, ooakut; wayhut. 
We, nesika. 

Weak, wake skookum; halo skookum. 
Wear, mitlite. 
Weary, till. 
Wedding, malieh. 
Wednesday, klone sun. 
Weed, cultus tupso. 
Week, Sunday; week. 
Weep, cly. 

Weigh, to, mamook till. 
Welcome (to you), kloshe tumtum mika 

Well then, abba. 
Well (n.), tlwop. 
Went, klatawa. 
West, kah sun klatawa. 
Wet, pahtl chuck; chuck mitlite. 
Whale, ehkolie; ehkole; kwahnice; kwad- 

dls; whale. 
What, ikta; iktah. 
What is the matter (if sick), kah mika 

Wheat, sapolill; lewhet; lebley. 

Wheel, chikchik: tsiktsik. 

When, kansih; kunjih. 

Whence, kah. 

Where, kah. 

Whet, mamook sharp. 

Which, klaksta. 

Whine, wawa kahkwa cly. 

Whip, le whet; lawhip. 

Whiskey, whiskey; lum. 

Whisper, tenas wawa (showing how): 

ipsoot wawa. 
Whistle, mamook wind kopa lapush. 
White, tkope. 
Whiten, mamook tkope. 
Whitewash, mamook pent tkope. 
Who, klaksta. 

Whole, konoway; lowullo; lolo. 
Whose, klaksta. 




Wliy, pe kahta; kahta. 

Wicked, mesahchie; mesachie; peshak. 

Wide, klukulh; halakl. 

Widow, klootchman yaka man mimoluse. 

Wife, klootchman; oquackakull. 

Wild, le molo; wild. 

Wild Cat, hyas pishpish; siwash pish- 

pish;; kwalas. 
Wild Onions, kalaka. 
Will, The, tumtum. 
Willow, eena stick. 
Win, To, tolo. 
Wind, wind. 

Wind Instrument, tuttut; tuletule. 
Windy, hiyu wind. 
Wine, wine. 

Wing", kalakala yaka lemah, tepeh. 
Wink, mamook seahost. 
Winnow, mamook toto. 
Winter, cole illahee. 
Wintry, kahkwa cole illahee. 
Wipe, to, mamook dly; klakwun. . 
Wire, chikamin lope. 
Wisdom, Wise, kumtuks. 
Wish, to, tikegh. 
Witch, tamahnous. 
With, kunamokst; kopa. 
Withdraw, mamook kilapie. 
Without (not any), halo. 
Without (not in), klahanie. 
Wolf, leloo; wolf. 
Wolf (Prairie), talapus. 
Woman, klootchman. 
Womanly, kahkwa klootchman. 
Woman (old), lammieh; lummieh. 
Womb, lesak kopa klootchman kah tenas 

mitlite; belly. 
Wonder, mamook tumtum. 
Woo, hyas tikegh. 
Wood, Wooden, stick. 

Wool, sheep yaka tupso, lummeto yakso. 
Woolen Caps, latuk. 
Word, wawa. 

Work, to, mamook. 

World, konoway okoke illahee. 

Worn out, oleman; cultus. 

Worry, sick tumtum. 

Worship, wawa kopa saghalie tyee 

Worse, elip mesachie; kimtah klosh. 

Worst, elip mesachie kopa konoway. 

Worthless, cultus. 

Worthy, kloshe. 

Wound, to, mamook, cut; mamook kwotl; 

Wrap, mamook kow. 
Wrestle, mamook pight. 
Wretched, hyas sick tumtum. 
Wrist, lemah yahwa (point to it). 
Writing-, tzum. 
Write, to, mamook tzum ; mamook pelj- 

Writer, tzum man. 
Wrong", wake kloshe. 

Yankee, Boston man. 

Yard, ikt stick. 

Yawn, tikegh moosum. 

Year, ikt cole. 

Yearn, hyas tikegh. 

Yell, hyas skooknm wawa. 

Yellow, kawkawak. 

Yelp, kamooks wawa. 

Yes, nawitka; ahha. 

Yes, indeed, nawitka. 

Yesterday, tahlkie sun. 

Yestemig'ht, tahlkie polaklie. 

Yield, kopet. 

Yonder, yahwa. 

You, Your (if singular), mika. 

You, your (if plural), mesika. 

Yours, mika; kopa mika; mikas. 

Young", tenas. 

Young-er, elip tenas. 

Young-est, elip tenas kopa konoway. 

Yourself, mika self. 


Page 1, column 1, line 3, from bottom, for specific, read special. 
Page 24, column 1, line 12, from top, for pues, read puis. 
Page 39, column 2, line 3, from top, for respelled word, read kloochman. 
Page 46, column 1, line 27, from bottom, for allihee, read lUihee. 

Note. — Suggestions and criticism invited. George C. Shaw, 115 32nd Ave., Seattle 


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